No evidence for IL1RAPL1 involvement in selected high-risk autism pedigrees from the AGRE data set.
ABSTRACT Finding predisposition genes for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has proven challenging, and new methods are needed to aid the process. Using pedigree structure as a strategy to identify ASD predisposition genes, we previously performed a genome-wide linkage scan of 86 selected families from the Autism Resource Exchange (AGRE) that appeared to inherit ASD in a dominant manner. We identified a suggestive linkage peak on chromosome Xp22.11-p21.2 that encompasses the IL1RAPL1 gene, a strong candidate gene for ASD. In this follow-up study, we sequenced the coding regions of the IL1RAPL1 gene in 14 male cases representing one case from each pedigree that showed at least nominal linkage evidence on per pedigree basis to the chromosome X region. We observed no deleterious mutations or deletions in the IL1RAPL1 gene in these 14 ASD cases. A SNP was identified in exon 2 in five cases and a variant of unknown significance was identified in intron 6 in a single case. In conclusion, coding changes of the IL1RAPL1 gene do not appear to be associated with ASD in selected AGRE families with linkage evidence to the chromosome Xp22.11-p21.2 region.
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the Aristaless related homeobox (ARX) gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation, sometimes associated with epilepsy, as well as syndromic forms with brain abnormalities and abnormal genitalia. Furthermore, ARX mutations have been described in a few patients with autism or autistic features. In this study, we screened the ARX gene in 226 male patients with autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation; 42 of the patients had epilepsy. The mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. No ARX mutations were identified in any of the patients tested. These findings indicate that mutations in the ARX gene are very rare in autism.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 04/2007; 144B(2):228-30. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30440 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mental retardation and epilepsy often occur together. They are both heterogeneous conditions with acquired and genetic causes. Where causes are primarily genetic, major advances have been made in unraveling their molecular basis. The human X chromosome alone is estimated to harbor more than 100 genes that, when mutated, cause mental retardation. At least eight autosomal genes involved in idiopathic epilepsy have been identified, and many more have been implicated in conditions where epilepsy is a feature. We have identified mutations in an X chromosome-linked, Aristaless-related, homeobox gene (ARX), in nine families with mental retardation (syndromic and nonspecific), various forms of epilepsy, including infantile spasms and myoclonic seizures, and dystonia. Two recurrent mutations, present in seven families, result in expansion of polyalanine tracts of the ARX protein. These probably cause protein aggregation, similar to other polyalanine and polyglutamine disorders. In addition, we have identified a missense mutation within the ARX homeodomain and a truncation mutation. Thus, it would seem that mutation of ARX is a major contributor to X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy.Nature Genetics 05/2002; 30(4):441-5. DOI:10.1038/ng862 · 29.65 Impact Factor
- Clinical Genetics 02/2008; 73(1):94-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2007.00920.x · 3.65 Impact Factor