The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Reginald D.V. Nixon, Apr 16, 2015
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ABSTRACT: With the inclusion of trauma-related cognitions in the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the assessment of these cognitions has become essential. Therefore, valid tools for the assessment of these cognitions are warranted. The current study aimed at validating the Dutch version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI). We included children aged 8-19 years in our study and assessed the factor structure, reliability and validity of the CPTCI in a clinical sample (n=184) and a school sample (n=318). Our results supported the two-factor structure of the CPTCI and showed good internal consistency for the total scale and the two subscales. We found significant positive correlations between the CPTCI and measures of PTSD, depression, and anxiety disorder. The CPTCI correlated negatively with a measure of quality of life. Furthermore, we found significantly higher scores in the clinical sample than in the school sample. For children who received treatment, we found that a decrease in CPTCI scores was accompanied by a decrease in posttraumatic stress symptoms and comorbid problems indicating that the CPTCI is able to detect treatment effects. Overall, our results suggest that the Dutch CPTCI is a reliable and valid instrument.European Journal of Psychotraumatology 02/2015; 6:26362. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v6.26362 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to assist children's recovery is imperative. Despite this, there are currently no empirically validated therapy programs designed specifically to target the effects of psychological maltreatment. There is, however, a growing literature on the effectiveness of therapies for other types of maltreatment, in particular sexual abuse. The present paper summarises the literature on treatments for childhood trauma including sexual and physical abuse. The application of these treatments to target outcomes secondary to psychological maltreatment is discussed and future research directions identified.Clinical Psychologist 07/2010; 14(2):30-38. DOI:10.1080/13284207.2010.500311 · 0.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 11/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.1007/s10802-013-9828-7 · 3.09 Impact Factor