The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.
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ABSTRACT: We review recent evidence regarding risk factors for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and treatment outcome studies from 2010 to 2012 including dissemination studies, early intervention studies and studies involving preschool children. Recent large-scale epidemiological surveys confirm that PTSD occurs in a minority of children and young people exposed to trauma. Detailed follow-up studies of trauma-exposed young people have investigated factors that distinguish those who develop a chronic PTSD from those who do not, with recent studies highlighting the importance of cognitive (thoughts, beliefs and memories) and social factors. Such findings are informative in developing treatments for young people with PTSD. Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) confirm that trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TF-CBT) is a highly efficacious treatment for PTSD, although questions remain about effective treatment components. A small number of dissemination studies indicate that TF-CBT can be effective when delivered in school and community settings. One recent RCT shows that TF-CBT is feasible and highly beneficial for very young preschool children. Studies of early intervention show mixed findings. Various forms of theory-based TF-CBT are highly effective in the treatment of children and adolescents with PTSD. Further work is needed to replicate and extend initial promising outcomes of TF-CBT for very young children. Dissemination studies and early intervention studies show mixed findings and further work is needed.Current opinion in psychiatry 01/2013; 26(1):66-72. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Child abuse is a tragedy that harms children psychologically, emotionally, and physically while disrupting healthy development. Many abused children live in terror of the accused perpetrator, court proceedings, and complications associated with abandonment from family and friends. Aligned with relational and creative counseling practice, a little-known resource exists to assist mental health practitioners who treat these children. Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) is an organization built on the power of human relationships with a mission to empower children by providing a sense of safety. This article includes information on the history, membership requirements, and interventions provided by BACA. Counselors working with abused children have a complimentary resource through BACA that may facilitate growth-fostering relationships and the sense of safety needed by victims of abuse.Journal of Creativity in Mental Health 01/2012; 7(1):35-48.
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ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among maltreated youth but it remains unclear as to whether removal from home is as traumatizing as the maltreatment. This study examined 250 maltreated adolescents aged 11–17 years who were grouped on the basis of whether they (1) endorsed removal from home as their primary traumatic event, (2) endorsed removal from home as a secondary traumatic event, but not their primary traumatic event, or (3) did not endorse removal from home as traumatic. PTSD diagnoses as well as symptoms of PTSD, dissociation, depression, posttraumatic cognitions, and anger expression were measured. Adolescents who endorsed removal from home as their primary traumatic event reported significantly lower levels of PTSD and related symptoms than adolescents in the other groups. The findings are discussed within the context of transactions surrounding removal from home and support previous work that PTSD is a critical concern regarding many maltreated youth.Journal of Family Violence 27(8). · 1.17 Impact Factor