Article

Outcomes of Universal Access to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Georgia.

Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center (IDACIRC), 16 Al. Kazbegi Avenue, Tbilisi 0160, Georgia.
AIDS research and treatment 01/2011; 2011:621078. DOI: 10.1155/2011/621078
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since 2004, Georgia achieved universal access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART). A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of Georgia's ART program. The study included adult patients enrolled in the ART program from 2004 through 2009. Of 752 patients, 76% were men, 60% were injection drug users (IDU), 59% had a history of an AIDS-defining illness, and 53% were coinfected with hepatitis C. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 141 cells/mm(3). During followup, 152 (20%) patients died, with the majority of deaths occurring within 12 months of ART initiation. Mortality was associated with advanced immunodeficiency or the presence of incurable disease at baseline. Among patients remaining on treatment, the median CD4 gain was 216 cell/mm(3) and 86% of patients had viral load <400 copies/ml at the last clinical visit. The Georgia ART program has been successful in treating injection drug users infected with HIV.

1 Bookmark
 · 
100 Views
  • Source
    Boston University Health and Development Discussion Papers. 12/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since 2004, the country of Georgia provides antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all patients in need. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess the effect of universal access to ART on patterns of mortality and causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Georgia. All known HIV-infected adult individuals (age ≥18 years) diagnosed from 1989 through 2012 were included. Rates and causes of death were determined using routinely collected data from the national HIV/AIDS database. Causes of death were classified according to Coding of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol. Between 1989 and 2012, 3,554 HIV-infected adults were registered in Georgia contributing to 13,572 person-years (PY) of follow-up. A total of 779 deaths were registered during follow-up. The mortality rate peaked in 2004 with 10.74 deaths per 100 PY (95% CI: 7.92-14.24) and significantly decreased after universal availability of ART to 4.02 per 100 PY (95% CI: 3.28-4.87) in 2012. In multivariate analysis the strongest predictor of mortality was having AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis (Hazard ratio: 5.69, 95% CI: 4.72-6.85). AIDS-related diseases accounted for the majority of deaths (n=426, 54.7%). Tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of death accounting for 21% of total deaths reported. Universal access to ART significantly reduced mortality among HIV-infected patients in Georgia. However, overall mortality rates remain high primarily due to late diagnosis and TB remains a significant cause of death. Improving rates of early HIV diagnosis and ART initiation may further decrease mortality as well as prevent new HIV and TB infections.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 01/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is little information on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Eastern European region. This prospective study evaluated multiple measures of adherence and their association with viral suppression among HIV patients in Georgia. Methods: A prospective cohort study enrolled 100 consecutive antiretroviral-naïve adult (age ≥18 years) patients, who were followed for three months. Adherence was assessed by medication refill and three self-report measures (an AIDS Clinical Trial Group [ACTG] tool for four-day adherence, a visual analogue scale [VAS] and a rating task for 30-day adherence). The VAS represented a line anchored by 0 and 100% corresponding to the percentage of prescribed doses taken. The rating task asked patients to rate their ability to take all medications as prescribed, with responses categorized into six levels of adherence: very poor (0%), poor (20%), fair (40%), good (60%), very good (80%) and excellent (100%). Patients with adherence of ≥95% by medication refill, ACTG and VAS, and ≥80% by rating task, were defined as adherent. Results: Of 100 patients enrolled, eight had missing data and were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 92 patients, the median age was 39 years, and 70% were men. Major modes of HIV acquisition were injection drug use (IDU; 47.3%) and heterosexual contact (44.1%). The proportions of adherent patients were as follows: 68% by medication refill, 90% by ACTG questionnaire, 38% by VAS and 42% by rating task. On average, four months after commencing ART, 52 (56.5%) patients had a viral load <400 copies/ml and 26 (28.3%) patients had a viral load <50 copies/ml. Of 43 persons with a history of IDU, 22 (51.2%) reached a viral load of <400 copies/ml. In multivariate analysis, only refill adherence was a statistically significant predictor of viral suppression of <400 copies/ml: the risk ratio was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.8). Refill adherence, VAS and rating task were associated with viral suppression of <50 copies/ml. Non-IDUs were twice as likely to achieve viral load <50 copies/ml compared to IDUs. Refill adherence had the largest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for predicting viral suppression. Conclusions: Medication refill adherence was the strongest predictor of viral suppression. IDUs can achieve optimal virologic outcomes, but may require additional adherence support.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2014; 17(1):18885. · 3.94 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

View
16 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014

Similar Publications