Influence of phase I duration on phase II VO2 kinetics parameter estimates in older and young adults.
ABSTRACT Older adults (O) may have a longer phase I pulmonary O(2) uptake kinetics (Vo(2)(p)) than young adults (Y); this may affect parameter estimates of phase II Vo(2)(p). Therefore, we sought to: 1) experimentally estimate the duration of phase I Vo(2)(p) (EE phase I) in O and Y subjects during moderate-intensity exercise transitions; 2) examine the effects of selected phase I durations (i.e., different start times for modeling phase II) on parameter estimates of the phase II Vo(2)(p) response; and 3) thereby determine whether slower phase II kinetics in O subjects represent a physiological difference or a by-product of fitting strategy. Vo(2)(p) was measured breath-by-breath in 19 O (68 ± 6 yr; mean ± SD) and 19 Y (24 ± 5 yr) using a volume turbine and mass spectrometer. Phase I Vo(2)(p) was longer in O (31 ± 4 s) than Y (20 ± 7 s) (P < 0.05). In O, phase II τVo(2)(p) was larger (P < 0.05) when fitting started at 15 s (49 ± 12 s) compared with fits starting at the individual EE phase I (43 ± 12 s), 25 s (42 ± 10 s), 35 s (42 ± 12 s), and 45 s (45 ± 15 s). In Y, τVo(2)(p) was not affected by the time at which phase II Vo(2)(p) fitting started (τVo(2)(p) = 31 ± 7 s, 29 ± 9 s, 30 ± 10 s, 32 ± 11 s, and 30 ± 8 s for fittings starting at 15 s, 25 s, 35 s, 45 s, and EE phase I, respectively). Fitting from EE phase I, 25 s, or 35 s resulted in the smallest CI τVo(2)(p) in both O and Y. Thus, fitting phase II Vo(2)(p) from (but not constrained to) 25 s or 35 s provides consistent estimates of Vo(2)(p) kinetics parameters in Y and O, despite the longer phase I Vo(2)(p) in O.
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ABSTRACT: This study characterized the profile of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived muscle deoxygenation (Δ[HHb]) and the tissue oxygenation index (TOI) as a function of absolute (PO(ABS)) and normalized power output (%PO) or oxygen consumption (%VO(2)) during incremental cycling exercise. Eight men (24 ± 5 year) each performed two fatigue-limited ramp incremental cycling tests (20 W min(-1)), during which pulmonary VO(2), Δ[HHb] and TOI were measured continuously. Responses from the two tests were averaged and the TOI (%) and normalized Δ[HHb] (%Δ[HHb]) were plotted against %VO(2), %PO and PO(ABS). The overall responses were modelled using a sigmoid regression (y = f ( 0 ) + A/(1 + e(-(-c+dx)))) and piecewise 'double-linear' function of the predominant adjustment of %Δ[HHb] or TOI observed throughout the middle portion of exercise and the 'plateau' that followed. In ~85% of cases, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AIC(C)) was smaller (suggesting one model favoured) for the 'double-linear' compared with the sigmoid regression for both %Δ[HHb] and TOI. Furthermore, the f ( 0 ) and A estimates from the sigmoid regressions of %Δ[HHb] yielded unrealistically large projected peak (f ( 0 ) + A) values (%VO(2p) 114.3 ± 17.5; %PO 113.3 ± 9.5; PO(ABS) 113.5 ± 9.8), suggesting that the sigmoid model does not accurately describe the underlying physiological responses in all subjects and thus may not be appropriate for comparative purposes. Alternatively, the present study proposes that the profile of %Δ[HHb] and TOI during ramp incremental exercise may be more accurately described as consisting of three distinct phases in which there is little adjustment early in the ramp, the predominant increase in %Δ[HHb] (decrease in TOI) is approximately linear and an approximately linear 'plateau' follows.Arbeitsphysiologie 01/2012; 112(9):3349-60. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Centenarians are an outstanding model of successful aging, with genetics and healthy lifestyle certainly being key factors responsible for their longevity. Exercise capacity has been identified to play an important role in healthy aging, but a comprehensive assessment of the limitations to maximal exercise in this population is lacking. Following, health histories, lung function, and anthropometric measures, eight female centenarians (98-102 years old) and eight young females (18-22 years old) performed a series of graded maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer that facilitated absolute and relative work rate comparisons. Centenarians revealed a dramatically attenuated lung function, as measured by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), 55 ± 10%) compared to the young (FEV(1)/FVC, 77 ± 5%). During exercise, although the centenarians relied heavily on respiratory rate which yielded ∼50% higher dead space/tidal volume, minute ventilation was similar to that of the young at all but maximal exercise, and alveolar PO(2) was maintained in both groups. In contrast, peak WR and VO(2) were significantly reduced in the centenarians (33 ± 4 vs 179 ± 24 W; 7.5 ± 1.2 vs 39.6 ± 3.5 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Arterial PO(2) of the centenarians fell steadily from the normal range of both groups to yield a large A-a gradient (57 ± 6 mmHg). Metabolic cost of a given absolute work rate was consistently lower, ∼46% less than the young at maximal effort. Centenarians have significant limitations to gas exchange across the lungs during exercise, but this limited oxygen transport is tempered by improved skeletal muscle mechanical efficiency that may play a vital role in maintaining physical function and therefore longevity in this population.Age 01/2012; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The adjustment of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2p), heart rate (HR), limb blood flow (LBF), and muscle deoxygenation [HHb] were examined during the transition to moderate-intensity, knee-extension exercise in six older adults (70 ± 4 years) under 2 conditions: normoxia (FIO2=20.9%) and hypoxia (FIO2=15%). The subjects performed repeated step transitions from an active baseline (3 W) to an absolute work rate (21 W) in both conditions. Phase 2 VO2p, HR, LBF, and [HHb] data were fit with an exponential model. Under hypoxic conditions, no change was observed in HR kinetics, on the other hand, LBF kinetics was faster (Norm, 34±3 sec; Hypo 28±2), whereas the overall [HHb] adjustment ( ) was slower (Norm, 28±2; Hypo 33±4 sec). Phase 2 VO2p kinetics were unchanged (p<0.05). The faster LBF kinetics and slower [HHb] kinetics reflect an improved matching between O2 delivery and O2 utilization at the microvascular level, preventing the phase 2 VO2p kinetics from become slower in hypoxia. Moreover the absolute blood flow values were higher in hypoxia (1.17 ± 0.2 l*min-1) compared to normoxia (0.96 ± 0.2 l*min-1) during the steady state exercise at 21 watts. These findings support the idea that, for older adults exercising at a low work rate, an increase of limb blood flow offsets the drop in arterial oxygen content (CaO2) caused by breathing an hypoxic mixture.Arbeitsphysiologie 01/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor