Saccharomyces cerivisiae as a model system for kidney disease: what can yeast tell us about renal function?
ABSTRACT Ion channels, solute transporters, aquaporins, and factors required for signal transduction are vital for kidney function. Because mutations in these proteins or in associated regulatory factors can lead to disease, an investigation into their biogenesis, activities, and interplay with other proteins is essential. To this end, the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, represents a powerful experimental system. Proteins expressed in yeast include the following: 1) ion channels, including the epithelial sodium channel, members of the inward rectifying potassium channel family, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; 2) plasma membrane transporters, such as the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, the Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter, and the Na(+)-H(+) ATPase; 3) aquaporins 1-4; and 4) proteins such as serum/glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, Rh glycoprotein kidney, and trehalase. The variety of proteins expressed and studied emphasizes the versatility of yeast, and, because of the many available tools in this organism, results can be obtained rapidly and economically. In most cases, data gathered using yeast have been substantiated in higher cell types. These attributes validate yeast as a model system to explore renal physiology and suggest that research initiated using this system may lead to novel therapeutics.
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ABSTRACT: The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC, SLC12A3) mediates salt reabsorption in the distal nephron of the kidney and is the target of thiazide diuretics, which are commonly prescribed to treat hypertension. Mutations in NCC also give rise to Gitelman syndrome, a hereditary salt-wasting disorder thought in most cases to arise from impaired NCC biogenesis through enhanced endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Because the machinery that mediates NCC quality control is completely undefined, we employed yeast as a model heterologous expression system to identify factors involved in NCC degradation. We confirmed that NCC was a bona fide ERAD substrate in yeast, as the majority of NCC polypeptide was integrated into ER membranes, and its turnover rate was sensitive to proteasome inhibition. NCC degradation was primarily dependent on the ER membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1. Whereas several ER luminal chaperones were dispensable for NCC ERAD, NCC ubiquitination and degradation required the activity of Ssa1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 chaperone. Compatible findings were observed when NCC was expressed in mammalian kidney cells, as the cotransporter was polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, and mammalian cytoplasmic Hsp70 (Hsp72) coexpression stimulated the degradation of newly synthesized NCC. Hsp70 also preferentially associated with the ER-localized NCC glycosylated species, indicating that cytoplasmic Hsp70 plays a critical role in selecting immature forms of NCC for ERAD. Together, these results provide the first survey of components involved in the ERAD of a mammalian SLC12 cation chloride cotransporter and provide a framework for future studies on NCC ER quality control.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(51):43611-21. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.288928 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cation–chloride co-transporters serve to transport Cl– and alkali metal cations. Whereas a large family of these exists in higher eukaryotes, yeasts only possess one cation–chloride co-transporter, Vhc1, localized to the vacuolar membrane. In this study, the human cation–chloride co-transporter NKCC2 complemented the phenotype of VHC1 deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its activity controlled the growth of salt-sensitive yeast cells in the presence of high KCl, NaCl and LiCl. A S. cerevisiae mutant lacking plasma-membrane alkali–metal cation exporters Nha1 and Ena1-5 and the vacuolar cation–chloride co-transporter Vhc1 is highly sensitive to increased concentrations of alkali–metal cations, and it proved to be a suitable model for characterizing the substrate specificity and transport activity of human wild-type and mutated cation–chloride co-transporters.Yeast 08/2013; 30(10):395-402. DOI:10.1002/yea.2976 · 1.74 Impact Factor