An “Exacerbate-reverse” Strategy in Yeast Identifies Histone Deacetylase Inhibition as a Correction for Cholesterol and Sphingolipid Transport Defects in Human Niemann-Pick Type C Disease
ABSTRACT Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal lysosomal lipid storage disorder for which no effective therapy exists. A genome-wide, conditional synthetic lethality screen was performed using the yeast model of NP-C disease during anaerobiosis, an auxotrophic condition that requires yeast to utilize exogenous sterol. We identified 12 pathways and 13 genes as modifiers of the absence of the yeast NPC1 ortholog (NCR1) and quantified the impact of loss of these genes on sterol metabolism in ncr1Δ strains grown under viable aerobic conditions. Deletion of components of the yeast NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex in ncr1Δ strains conferred anaerobic inviability and accumulation of multiple sterol intermediates. Thus, we hypothesize an imbalance in histone acetylation in human NP-C disease. Accordingly, we show that the majority of the 11 histone deacetylase (HDAC) genes are transcriptionally up-regulated in three genetically distinct fibroblast lines derived from patients with NP-C disease. A clinically approved HDAC inhibitor (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) reverses the dysregulation of the majority of the HDAC genes. Consequently, three key cellular diagnostic criteria of NP-C disease are dramatically ameliorated as follows: lysosomal accumulation of both cholesterol and sphingolipids and defective esterification of LDL-derived cholesterol. These data suggest HDAC inhibition as a candidate therapy for NP-C disease. We conclude that pathways that exacerbate lethality in a model organism can be reversed in human cells as a novel therapeutic strategy. This "exacerbate-reverse" approach can potentially be utilized in any model organism for any disease.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder characterised by the storage of multiple lipids, reduced lysosomal calcium levels, impaired late endosome:lysosome fusion and neuroinflammation. NPC is caused by mutations in either of two genes, NPC1 or NPC2, which are believed to function in a common cellular pathway, the function of which remain unclear. The complexity of the pathogenic cascade in NPC disease provides a number of potential clinical intervention points. To date, drugs that target pivotal stages in the pathogenic cascade have been tested as monotherapies or in combination with a second agent, showing additive or synergistic benefit. In this study, we have investigated whether we can achieve greater therapeutic benefit in the Npc1-/- mouse by combining three therapies that each target unique aspects of the pathogenic cascade. Methods We have treated Npc1-/- mice with miglustat that targets sphingolipid synthesis and storage, curcumin that compensates for the lysosomal calcium defect by elevating cytosolic calcium, and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen to reduce central nervous system inflammation. Results/interpretation We have found that triple combination therapy has a greater neuroprotective benefit compared with single and dual therapies, increasing the time period Npc1-/- mice maintained body weight and motor function and maximally delaying the onset of Purkinje cell loss. In addition, ibuprofen selectively reduced microglial activation, while curcumin had no anti-inflammatory effects, indicating differential mechanisms of action for these two therapies. When taken together, these results demonstrate that targeting multiple unique steps in the pathogenic cascade maximises clinical benefit in a mouse model of NPC1 disease.Neurobiology of Disease 07/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.03.001 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The extraordinary benefit of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the systemic manifestations of Gaucher disease was demonstrated in 1991. Since that time, investigators have devoted substantial effort to improve the delivery of enzymes to the brain because many hereditary metabolic disorders are characterized by extensive central nervous system involvement. Because the required supplemental enzyme is too large to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), ERT for central nervous system involvement was out of the question at that time. Several innovative strategies that have been reported to overcome this impediment are discussed. Recent investigations have provided additional insight concerning the pathogenesis of enzyme deficiency disorders. For many years it was presumed that alterations of the amino acid sequence of enzymes such as glucocerebrosidase reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme. It has recently been shown that the decrease of glucocerebrosidase activity was the result of a quantitative loss of the amount of this enzyme. Significant increases of its activity were obtained with small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylase that cross the BBB. The effect of such materials on neuronopathic Gaucher disease and other CNS metabolic disorders is discussed.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 07/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10545-012-9515-9 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g., the Hedgehog system). A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more "traditional" regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review.Frontiers in Genetics 09/2014; 5:311. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00311