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    • "Bernstein et al. investigated the effect of genetic nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL4RA), IL-13, and CD14 in isocyanate exposed workers and found a statistically significant association of diisocyanate asthma with the IL4RA (I50V), IL13 (R110Q), and CD14 (C159T) genotype combinations, but only in HDI exposed workers and not in those exposed to MDI or TDI. As discussed by the authors, the reason for this finding might be a statistical artifact due to the greater number of HDI-exposed subjects available in these studies [73,74]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the most common forms of work-related lung disease in all industrialized nations. The clinical management of patients with OA depends on an understanding of the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanisms that can contribute to this disease. This article discusses the various immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms and genetic susceptibility factors that drive the inflammatory processes of OA.
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