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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a multi-organ system disease with underlying insulin resistance and systemic chronic inflammation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of the underlying metabolic dysfunction. This review provides a highlight of the current understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and disease characteristics, with updates on the challenges of NAFLD management in obese and severely obese (SO) patients and recommendations for the pediatric surgeons' role in the care of SO adolescents.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 02/2014; 23(1):49-57. DOI:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2013.10.016 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The morphological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) range from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Liver biopsy remains the main tool for NASH diagnosis and many histological systems to diagnose and grade NAFLD were proposed. We evaluated the relationship among NAFLD activity score (NAS), histological diagnoses (non-NASH, possible NASH, and definite NASH), and histological algorithm proposed by Bedossa et al.; additionally the degrees of morphological features were semiquantified and correlated with non-NASH and NASH. Seventy-one liver biopsies were studied. The agreement among the three systems considering NASH and non-NASH was excellent (Κ = 0.96). Among the 22 biopsies with NAS 3-4, 72.7% showed to be NASH according to Bedossa's algorithm. The degree of steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis stage were correlated with NASH (P < 0.001). Fibrosis stage 1 was also found in non-NASH. Over the spectrum of NAFLD, no association was observed between intensity of steatosis and fibrosis grade. The degrees of lobular inflammation showed association with fibrosis stage (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, there is agreement among different NAFLD classifications and NAS > 4 may be a better cutoff from which to consider NASH diagnosis; besides the highest degrees of steatosis, ballooning, inflammation, and fibrosis are associated with NASH.
    Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam) 01/2014; 2014:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2014/526979 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and is the most common type of chronic liver diseases in the majority of developed countries. NAFLD shows a wide spectrum of disorders including simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis. While simple steatosis is recognized to be benign and stable, NASH is considered to be an aggressive form of the disease progressing to cirrhosis. Currently, differentiation between NASH and simple steatosis can be done only by liver biopsy. Despite many proposals and revisions, the histological criteria for the differentiation have not been perfected yet. In this review article, the changes in the histopathologic criteria of NAFLD during the last three decades are summarized, and perspectives of the future changes are demonstrated. The discussion focuses on how pathologists have been dealing with "hepatocellular ballooning". Loose criteria, in which hepatocellular ballooning was not required for the diagnosis of NASH, were applied in many clinical studies published in around 2000's, whereas a strict criterion based on the presence/absence of hepatocellular ballooning was approved recently. Hence, simple and reliable methods of identifying ballooned hepatocytes are being sought. Clinical and pathological predictors of NAFLD-related hepatocarcinogenesis will also be sought in the future.