Assessment of vitamin B6 status in Korean patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji Medical College, Seoul 139-872, Korea.
Nutrition research and practice (Impact Factor: 1.44). 02/2011; 5(1):34-9. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2011.5.1.34
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin B(6) intake and status in Korean patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Sixty-four patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 8-11% glycated hemoglobin (A1C), along with 28 age-matched non-diabetic subjects, participated. Dietary vitamin B(6) intake was estimated by the 24 hour recall method and plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was measured. There was a significant difference in daily total calorie intake between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (1,917 ± 376 vs 2,093 ± 311 kcal). There were no differences in intake of total vitamin B(6) (2.51 ± 0.91 vs 2.53 ± 0.81 mg/d) or vitamin B(6)/1,000 kcal (1.31 ± 0.42 vs 1.20 ± 0.32 mg) between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups, andI intakes of total vitamin B(6) were above the Korean RDA in both groups (180.0 ± 57.9 vs 179.0 ± 65.4). There was a higher percentage of diabetic subjects whose plasma PLP concentration was < 30 nmol/L compared to non-diabetic group. Plasma PLP levels tended to be lower in the diabetic subjects than in the non-diabetic subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant due to a large standard deviation (80.0 ± 61.2 nmol/L vs 68.2 ± 38.5 nmol/L). Nevertheless, plasma PLP levels should be monitored in pre-diabetic patients with diabetic risk factors as well as in newly diagnosed diabetic patients for long-term management of diabetes, even though this factor is not a major risk factor that contributes to the development of degenerative complications in certain patients.

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    ABSTRACT: A variety of inflammatory disease conditions have been found to be associated with low levels of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6 , without any indication of a lower dietary intake of vitamin B6 , excessive catabolism of the vitamin, or congenital defects in its metabolism. The present review was conducted to examine the existing literature in this regard. Current evidence suggests that the inverse association between plasma PLP and inflammation may be the result of mobilization of this coenzyme to the site of inflammation, for use by the PLP-dependent enzymes of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, metabolism of the immunomodulatory sphingolipids, ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, and for serine hydroxymethylase for immune cell proliferation.
    Nutrition Reviews 04/2013; 71(4):239-44. DOI:10.1111/nure.12014 · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To investigate the vitamin B status, with particular focus on vitamin B6, in adults with and without incipient nephropathy secondary to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Plasma and/or urine concentrations of vitamins B6, B1, B12, related vitamers and biomarkers (including total homocysteine, methylmalonic acid) were measured in 120 adults with type 2 diabetes (including 46 patients with microalbuminuria) and 52 non-diabetic control subjects. Results Plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes than in control subjects (median: 22.7 nmol/L, diabetes with microalbuminuria; 26.8 nmol/L, diabetes without microalbuminuria; 39.5 nmol/L, non-diabetic control; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of low PLP (<30nmol/L) was 63%, 58%, and 25% in the diabetes groups with and without microalbuminuria and the control group, respectively. Plasma levels of pyridoxine and pyridoxal were also lower (p < 0.0001), but levels of pyridoxamine, pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate, and pyridoxic acid were higher in both groups with diabetes compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Thiamine deficiency was highly prevalent in all groups, whereas low vitamin B12 and elevated methylmalonic acid were rare. Increased levels of C-reactive protein and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were observed in the groups with diabetes (p < 0.05, versus healthy control). Conclusions Deficiency of vitamin B6 (PLP, pyridoxine, pyridoxal) and vitamin B1 (thiamine) was prevalent in type 2 diabetes. Incipient nephropathy was associated with more pronounced alterations in vitamin B6 metabolism and stronger indications of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10/2014; 107(1). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.058 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12.
    Endocrine Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders) 11/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.2174/1871530314666141111103217

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