A quantitative high-throughput screen identifies novel inhibitors of the interaction of thyroid receptor beta with a peptide of steroid receptor coactivator 2.

NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening (Impact Factor: 2.21). 04/2011; 16(6):618-27. DOI: 10.1177/1087057111402199
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily that regulate development, growth, and metabolism. Upon ligand binding, TR releases bound corepressors and recruits coactivators to modulate target gene expression. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC2) is an important coregulator that interacts with TRβ to activate gene transcription. To identify novel inhibitors of the TRβ and SRC2 interaction, the authors performed a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) of a TRβ-SRC2 fluorescence polarization assay against more than 290 000 small molecules. The qHTS assayed compounds at 6 concentrations up to 92 µM to generate titration-response curves and determine the potency and efficacy of all compounds. The qHTS data set enabled the characterization of actives for structure-activity relationships as well as for potential artifacts such as fluorescence interference. Selected qHTS actives were tested in the screening assay using fluoroprobes labeled with Texas Red or fluorescein. The retest identified 19 series and 4 singletons as active in both assays with 40% or greater efficacy, free of compound interference, and not toxic to mammalian cells. Selected compounds were tested as independent samples, and a methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate series inhibited the TRβ-SRC2 interaction with 5 µM IC(50). This series represents a new class of thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator modulators.

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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily and regulate development, growth, and metabolism. Upon binding thyroid hormone, TR undergoes a conformational change that allows the release of corepressors and the recruitment of coactivators, which in turn regulate target gene transcription. Although a number of TR antagonists have been developed, most are analogs of the endogenous hormone that inhibit ligand binding. In a screen for inhibitors that block the association of TRβ with steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC2), we identified a novel methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate (MSNB)-containing series that blocks this interaction at micromolar concentrations. Here we have studied a series of MSNB analogs and characterized their structure activity relationships. MSNB members do not displace thyroid hormone T3 but instead act by direct displacement of SRC2. MSNB series members are selective for the TR over the androgen, vitamin D, and PPARγ NR members, and they antagonize thyroid hormone-activated transcription action in cells. The methylsulfonylnitro group is essential for TRβ antagonism. Side-chain alkylamine substituents showed better inhibitory activity than arylamine substituents. Mass spectrum analysis suggested that MSNB inhibitors bind irreversibly to Cys-298 within the AF-2 cleft of TRβ to disrupt SRC2 association.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(14):11895-908. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pilot testing of an assay intended for high-throughput screening (HTS) with small compound sets is a necessary but often time-consuming step in the validation of an assay protocol. When the initial testing concentration is less than optimal, this can involve iterative testing at different concentrations to further evaluate the pilot outcome, which can be even more time-consuming. Quantitative HTS (qHTS) enables flexible and rapid collection of assay performance statistics, hits at different concentrations, and concentration-response curves in a single experiment. Here we describe the qHTS process for pilot testing in which eight-point concentration-response curves are produced using an interplate asymmetric dilution protocol in which the first four concentrations are used to represent the range of typical HTS screening concentrations and the last four concentrations are added for robust curve fitting to determine potency/efficacy values. We also describe how these data can be analyzed to predict the frequency of false-positives, false-negatives, hit rates, and confirmation rates for the HTS process as a function of screening concentration. By taking into account the compound pharmacology, this pilot-testing paradigm enables rapid assessment of the assay performance and choosing the optimal concentration for the large-scale HTS in one experiment.
    Journal of Biomolecular Screening 11/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thyroid hormone (TH) system is involved in several important physiological processes, including regulation of energy metabolism, growth and differentiation, development and maintenance of brain function, thermo-regulation, osmo-regulation, and axis of regulation of other endocrine systems, sexual behaviour and fertility, cardiovascular function. Therefore, concern about TH disruption (THD) has resulted in strategies being developed to identify THD chemicals (THDCs). Information on potential of chemicals causing THD is typically derived from animal studies. For the majority of chemicals, however, this information is either limited or unavailable. It is also unlikely that animal experiments will be performed for all THD relevant chemicals in the near future for ethical, financial and practical reasons. In addition, typical animal experiments often do not provide information on the mechanism of action of THDC, making it harder to extrapolate results across species. Relevant effects may not be identified in animal studies when the effects are delayed, life stage specific, not assessed by the experimental paradigm (e.g., behaviour) or only occur when an organism has to adapt to environmental factors by modulating TH levels. Therefore, in vitro and in silico alternatives to identify THDC and quantify their potency are needed. THDC have many potential mechanisms of action, including altered hormone production, transport, metabolism, receptor activation and disruption of several feed-back mechanisms. In vitro assays are available for many of these endpoints, and the application of modern '-omics' technologies, applicable for in vivo studies can help to reveal relevant and possibly new endpoints for inclusion in a targeted THDC in vitro test battery. Within the framework of the ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), an international group consisting of experts in the areas of thyroid endocrinology, toxicology of endocrine disruption, neurotoxicology, high-throughput screening, computational biology, and regulatory affairs has reviewed the state of science for (1) known mechanisms for THD plus examples of THDC; (2) in vitro THD tests currently available or under development related to these mechanisms; and (3) in silico methods for estimating the blood levels of THDC. Based on this scientific review, the panel has recommended a battery of test methods to be able to classify chemicals as of less or high concern for further hazard and risk assessment for THD. In addition, research gaps and needs are identified to be able to optimize and validate the targeted THD in vitro test battery for a mechanism-based strategy for a decision to opt out or to proceed with further testing for THD.
    Toxicology in Vitro 02/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor


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May 21, 2014