Helicobacter pylori VacA induces programmed necrosis in gastric epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and contributes to the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The secreted pore-forming toxin VacA is one of the major virulence factors of H. pylori. In the current study, we show that AZ-521 human gastric epithelial cells are highly susceptible to VacA-induced cell death. Wild-type VacA causes death of these cells, whereas mutant VacA proteins defective in membrane channel formation do not. Incubation of AZ-521 cells with wild-type VacA results in cell swelling, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, decreased intracellular ATP concentration, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. VacA-induced death of these cells is a caspase-independent process that results in cellular release of histone-binding protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a proinflammatory protein. These features are consistent with the occurrence of cell death through a programmed necrosis pathway and suggest that VacA can be included among the growing number of bacterial pore-forming toxins that induce cell death through programmed necrosis. We propose that VacA augments H. pylori-induced mucosal inflammation in the human stomach by causing programmed necrosis of gastric epithelial cells and subsequent release of proinflammatory proteins and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.
The Lancet 10/1999; 354(9184):1124-5. · 38.28 Impact Factor
Article: Mitochondrial control of apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The apoptotic process can be subdivided into three phases: a death-stimulus-dependent, heterogeneous induction phase, a common effector phase during which the ‘decision to die’ is taken, and a common degradation phase during which cells acquire the biochemical and morphological features of end-stage apoptosis. Here, Guido Kroemer, Naoufal Zamzami and Santos Susin discuss the implication of mitochondrial events in the apoptotic effector phase.Immunology Today 02/1997; 18(1):44-51.
Article: Mosaicism in vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori strains produce a cytotoxin, encoded by vacA, that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. Analysis of a clinically isolated tox- strain (Tx30a) indicated secretion of a 93-kDa product from a 3933-base pair vacA open reading frame. Characterization of 59 different H. pylori isolates indicated the existence of three different families of vacA signal sequences (s1a, s1b, and s2) and two different families of middle-region alleles (m1 and m2). All possible combinations of these vacA regions were identified, with the exception of s2/m1 (p < 0.001); this mosaic organization implies that recombination has occurred in vivo between vacA alleles. Type s1/m1 strains produced a higher level of cytotoxin activity in vitro than type s1/m2 strains; none of 19 type s2/m2 strains produced detectable cytotoxin activity. The presence of cagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) was closely associated with the presence of vacA signal sequence type s1 (p < 0.001). Among patients with past or present peptic ulceration, 21 (91%) of 23 harbored type s1 strains compared with 16 (48%) of 33 patients without peptic ulcers; only 2 (10%) of 19 subjects harboring type s2 strains had past or present peptic ulcers (p < 0.005). Thus, specific vacA genotypes of H. pylori strains are associated with the level of in vitro cytotoxin activity as well as clinical consequences.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1995; 270(30):17771-7. · 4.77 Impact Factor