DNA polymerases provide a canon of strategies for translesion synthesis past oxidatively generated lesions

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Markey Center for Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology (Impact Factor: 8.75). 06/2011; 21(3):358-69. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deducing the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 implied the mode of its replication: Watson-Crick (WC) base pairing might instruct an enzyme, now known as the DNA polymerase, during the synthesis of a daughter stand complementary to a single strand of the parental double helix. What has become increasingly clear in the last 60 years, however, is that adducted and oxidatively generated DNA bases are ubiquitous in physiological DNA, and all organisms conserve multiple DNA polymerases specialized for DNA synthesis opposite these damaged templates. Here, we review recent crystal structures depicting replicative and bypass DNA polymerases encountering two typical lesions arising from the oxidation of DNA: abasic sites, which block the replication fork, and the miscoding premutagenic lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG).

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    ABSTRACT: THREE DNA POLYMERASES OF THE B FAMILY FUNCTION AT THE REPLICATION FORK IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS: DNA polymerases α, δ, and ε. DNA polymerase α, an heterotetramer composed of two primase subunits and two polymerase subunits, initiates replication. DNA polymerases δ and ε elongate the primers generated by pol α. The DNA polymerase from bacteriophage RB69 has served as a model for eukaryotic B family polymerases for some time. The recent crystal structures of pol δ, α, and ε revealed similarities but also a number of unexpected differences between the eukaryotic polymerases and their bacteriophage counterpart, and also among the three yeast polymerases. This review will focus on their shared structural elements as well as the features that are unique to each of these polymerases.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 08/2014; 5:444. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00444 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PrimPol is a recently described DNA polymerase that has the virtue of initiating DNA synthesis. In addition of being a sensu stricto DNA primase, PrimPol's polymerase activity has a large capacity to tolerate different kind of lesions. The different strategies used by PrimPol for DNA damage tolerance are based on its capacity to "read" certain lesions, to skip unreadable lesions, and as an ultimate solution, to restart DNA synthesis beyond the lesion thus acting as a TLS primase. This lesion bypass potential, revised in this article, is strengthened by the preferential use of moderate concentrations of manganese ions as the preferred metal activator. We show here that PrimPol is able to extend RNA primers with ribonucleotides, even when bypassing 8oxoG lesions, suggesting a potential new scenario for PrimPol as a TLS polymerase assisting transcription. We also show that PrimPol displays a high degree of versatility to accept or induce distortions of both primer and template strands, creating alternative alignments based on microhomology that would serve to skip unreadable lesions and to connect separate strands. In good agreement, PrimPol is highly prone to generate indels at short nucleotide repeats. Finally, an evolutionary view of the relationship between translesion synthesis and primase functions is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 is the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at utilizing rNTPs or dNTPs as substrates. Here we investigate the fidelity and lesion bypass capacity of DinB2. We report that DinB2 is an unfaithful DNA and RNA polymerase with a distinctive signature for misincorporation of dNMPs, rNMPs and oxoguanine nucleotides during templated synthesis in vitro. DinB2 has a broader mutagenic spectrum with manganese than magnesium, though low ratios of manganese to magnesium suffice to switch DinB2 to its more mutagenic mode. DinB2 discrimination against incorrect dNTPs in magnesium is primarily at the level of substrate binding affinity, rather than kpol. DinB2 can incorporate any dNMP or rNMP opposite oxo-dG in the template strand with manganese as cofactor, with a kinetic preference for synthesis of an A:oxo-dG Hoogsteen pair. With magnesium, DinB2 is adept at synthesizing A:oxo-dG or C:oxo-dG pairs. DinB2 effectively incorporates deoxyribonucleotides, but not ribonucleotides, opposite an abasic site, with kinetic preference for dATP as the substrate. We speculate that DinB2 might contribute to mycobacterial mutagenesis, oxidative stress and quiescence, and discuss the genetic challenges to linking the polymerase biochemistry to an in vivo phenotype.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1027 · 8.81 Impact Factor

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Sylvie Doublie