Cortical tubers, cognition, and epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by hamartomatous growth in various organs. Patients who have this disorder exhibit a high rate of epilepsy and cognitive problems. We investigated number of tubers, location, seizure types, and cognitive outcome, and we analyzed the relationships among them in our tuberous sclerosis patients in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at the University of Alberta. We also examined the seizure outcome after tuber resection. Our study cohort included 24 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. We obtained seizure history, electroencephalogram, and neuropsychologic parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine tuber numbers and locations. Ten patients underwent surgical removal of tubers responsible for intractable epilepsy. A negative correlation was found between the number of tubers and intelligent quotient score. Epilepsy surgery led to freedom from seizures in this patient group. We demonstrated that the total number and location of cortical tubers play a significant role in the extent of mental retardation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In addition, patients with intractable seizures and well-defined epileptic focus had excellent surgical outcome.
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ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disease that manifests with mental retardation, tumor formation, autism, and epilepsy. Heightened signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved in TSC pathology, however it remains unclear how other signaling pathways are perturbed and contribute to disease symptoms. Reduced long-term depression (LTD) was recently reported in TSC mutant mice. We find that although reduced LTD is a feature of the juvenile mutant hippocampus, heightened expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and constitutively activated Erk signaling in the adult hippocampus drives wild-type levels of LTD. Increased mGluR5 and Erk results in a novel mTOR-independent LTD in CA1 hippocampus of adult mice, and contributes to the development of epileptiform bursting activity in the TSC2(+/-) CA3 region of the hippocampus. Inhibition of mGluR5 or Erk signaling restores appropriate mTOR-dependence to LTD, and significantly reduces epileptiform bursting in TSC2(+/-) hippocampal slices. We also report that adult TSC2(+/-) mice exhibit a subtle perseverative behavioral phenotype that is eliminated by mGluR5 antagonism. These findings highlight the potential of modulating the mGluR5-Erk pathway in a developmental stage-specific manner to treat TSC.PLoS Biology 08/2013; 11(8):e1001627. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical phenotypes and their severity in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex can be quite variable and are sometimes never determined simply by the primary mutation. These make clinically selecting appropriate treatments and predicting disease outcome difficult. In this report, the prognostic ominous sequence was evaluated in association with clinical manifestations and gene mutations. Methods: The patients were classified by each renal lesion of angiomyolipomas and polycystic disease. The other clinical manifestations and outcomes of epilepsy, mental retardation, facial angiofibromas, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, cortical tubers were reviewed and each gene mutations were analyzed in seven unrelated patients. Results: Two patients with multiple and large proliferative renal angiomyolipoma showed poor clinical outcome than the patients with other renal lesions. These patients presented with progressively proliferative facial angiofibroma, West syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, severe mental retardation, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and they were affected by TSC2 gene mutations. Conclusion: The sequence of progressively proliferative renal angiomyolipoma, facial angiofibroma, West syndrome and TSC2 gene mutations might be prognostic ominous factors.Brain & development 05/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To present a prenatal diagnosis of familial tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). A 29-year-old woman was referred to our institution for amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of congenital anomaly. The fetus had been found to have an intrathoracic echogenic mass, suspicious of type III congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAML). The woman presented with a medical history of epilepsy and had received anticonvulsants but did not disclose the disease entity associated with the epilepsy. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. A fetal ultrasound examination at 26 weeks of gestation reported the diagnosis of type III CCAML. At 30 weeks of gestation, magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cortical tubers in the brain along with an intracardiac mass suspicious of cardiac rhabdomyoma, and a diagnosis of fetal TSC was made. A prenatal ultrasound examination at 30 weeks of gestation revealed multiple cardiac tumors and multiple cortical tubers in the brain. The mother admitted that she had been diagnosed to have TSC. Molecular analysis of the cultured amniocytes and the parental blood showed a splicing mutation of c.2639+1G>C in the splice donor site of intron 22 of TSC2 gene in the mother and the fetus. Prenatal diagnosis of an intrathoracic lesion with a family history of parental epilepsy should raise a suspicion of fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma and TSC, and prompt magnetic resonance imaging investigation and molecular genetic analysis if necessary.Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology 09/2013; 52(3):415-9.