Thyroid cancer and lymph node metastases.
ABSTRACT There is considerable controversy about the prognostic implications of lymph node metastases in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and whether patients with papillary thyroid cancer should have a prophylactic or selective central (level VI) neck dissection. Some experts report that a prophylactic ipsilateral neck dissection results in fewer patients having elevated thyroglobulin levels but others do not agree. A comprehensive review of the literature suggests that the presence of macroscopic metastases of papillary thyroid cancer in cervical lymph nodes results in a higher recurrence rate and increased death rate, especially in patients 45 years of age or older, whereas microscopic nodal metastases do not appear to adversely influence survival. Until more information is available we recommend preoperative ultrasonography and a selective ipsilateral neck dissection for patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for nodal recurrence in the lateral neck (NRLN) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who underwent total thyroidectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection (TT + pCND). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with PTC who underwent TT + pCND. Data of all patients treated over a 10-year period (between 1998 and 2007) were analysed. The primary outcome was prevalence of NRLN within the 5-year follow-up after initial surgery. Predictors of NRLN were determined in the univariable and multivariable analysis. Of 760 patients with PTC included in this study, 44 (6.0 %) developed NRLN. In the univariable analysis, the following factors were identified to be associated with an increased risk of NRLN: positive/negative lymph node ratio ≥0.3 (odds ratio (OR) 14.50, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 7.21 to 29.13; p < 0.001), central lymph node metastases (OR 7.47, 95 % CI 3.63 to 15.38; p < 0.001), number of level VI lymph nodes <6 in the specimen (OR 2.88, 95 % CI 1.21 to 6.83; p = 0.016), extension through the thyroid capsule (OR 2.55, 95 % CI 1.21 to 5.37; p = 0.013), localization of the tumour within the upper third of the thyroid lobe (OR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.27 to 4.34; p = 0.006) and multifocal lesions (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.01 to 3.41; p = 0.048). Central lymph node metastases together with positive to negative lymph node ratio ≥0.3 represent the strongest independent prognostic factors for the PTC recurrence in the lateral neck.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 11/2013; 399(2). DOI:10.1007/s00423-013-1135-9 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim. Thyroid cancer prognosis is determined by several variables, even with extremely elevated survival rate. The most debated issues are the type of thyroidectomy and extension of lymphadenectomy. Aim of the study is the analysis of benefits of level VI lymphadenectomy associated to total thyroidectomy in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Patients and methods. 316 total thyroidectomy with central node dissection were carried out in the Unit of Endocrine Surgery, University of Perugia. Direct parathyroid auto-implantation was carried out if damage or accidental excision occurred. High risk patients received radioiodine treatment. Results. Lymph node metastases in the VI level were observed in 42% of cases with a significant difference (p 0.0042) of positive lymph node in level VI comparing tumor larger than 1 cm vs smaller than 1 cm. No significant differences were observed when considering difference of sex, and age. Significant difference (p 0.005) was shown when considering over 45 years old male patients with tumor larger than 1 cm vs smaller ones. The 78% of patients underwent iodine ablation after surgery. Recurrence rate in these patients was 3.2%, with no significant difference compared to not treated patients. Bilateral temporary recurrent nerves palsy were observed in 0.6% of cases, unilateral temporary recurrent nerves palsy in 3.4%, unilateral permanent palsy in 1.5%, temporary hypoparathyroidism in 17%, permanent hypoparathyroidism in 4.4%. Conclusions. Total thyroidectomy combined to central node dissection, even in absence of risk factors and without clinical evident nodes, is the treatment of choice offering clear indications to radioiodine ablation.
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ABSTRACT: Prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) for management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial. Compared to many malignancies, PTC has a high overall survival but local recurrence due to lymph node metastases continue to present management challenges. Unlike lateral cervical nodal metastasis metastasis, central neck nodal metastasis are unable to be reliably detected clinically or radiologically at pre-operative assessment. Residual disease (recurrent or persistent) typically requires re-operative surgery in the central compartment, which carries a heightened risk of significant morbidity. These nodal groups can be accessed during the index thyroidectomy for PTC. Thus, pCND offers potential to reduce the rates of recurrence and the need for re-operative surgery in the central neck. This benefit needs to be balanced with the potential morbidity risk from pCND itself at the index resection. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pCND with regard to long-term outcomes and potential morbidity. The rationale of pCND will be discussed, along with the indications for ipsilateral and contralateral pCND, the role of re-operative surgery for recurrence and the use of selective versus routine pCND. Strategies to select higher risk patients for pCND with the use of molecular markers will be addressed, along with a discussion of quality of life (QoL) research in PTC.