C8orf13-BLK Is a Genetic Risk Locus for Systemic Sclerosis and Has Additive Effects With BANK1: Results From a Large French Cohort and Meta-Analysis
ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence suggests that B cells are involved in systemic sclerosis (SSc). BANK1 has been reproducibly reported to be associated with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). BLK encodes another B cell signal transducer, and a functional variant at the C8orf13-BLK locus has been found to be associated with SSc in Caucasians. However, no independent replication has been reported, and there are discrepancies in the genotype-phenotype correlation between these studies in Caucasians and another study performed in the Japanese population. Therefore, in a large cohort of French Caucasians and using a meta-analysis of the available data, this study was undertaken to determine whether the C8orf13-BLK locus is associated with SSc, and to assess the possibility of interaction between BLK and BANK1 in SSc.
The C8orf13-BLK rs13277113 genotype was determined in 1,031 patients with SSc and 1,014 control subjects for whom BANK1 genotypes were available. Meta-analysis of the 3 available data sets (6,078 individuals) was also performed.
Minor allele frequencies for rs13277113 revealed an association restricted to the dcSSc subtype (P = 0.012, odds ratio [OR] 1.29) in the French sample. Meta-analysis of the combined Caucasian populations showed an association of this genotype with both SSc (P = 0.0013, OR 1.16, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.26) and dcSSc (P = 0.0012, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39). Inclusion of the Japanese population confirmed the overall association with the disease, with the strongest association observed with dcSSc (P = 3.27 × 10⁻⁵, OR 1.27). Secondary analysis in the French sample revealed additive effects between C8orf13-BLK and BANK1, mainly in the dcSSc subset.
These results confirm C8orf13-BLK as an SSc risk locus. The strongest effects, and particularly additive effects, were observed in the interaction between C8orf13-BLK and BANK1 in the dcSSc subset.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic and autoimmune disease characterized clinically by skin and internal organ fibrosis and vascular damage, and serologically by the presence of circulating autoantibodies. Although etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood, the results of numerous genetic association studies support genetic contributions as an important factor to SSc. In this paper, the major genes of SSc are reviewed. The most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are taken into account along with robust candidate gene studies. The literature search was performed on genetic association studies of SSc in PubMed between January 2000 and March 2014 while eligible studies generally had over 600 total participants with replication. A few genetic association studies with related functional changes in SSc patients were also included. A total of forty seven genes or specific genetic regions were reported to be associated with SSc, although some are controversial. These genes include HLA genes, STAT4, CD247, TBX21, PTPN22, TNFSF4, IL23R, IL2RA, IL-21, SCHIP1/IL12A, CD226, BANK1, C8orf13-BLK, PLD4, TLR-2, NLRP1, ATG5, IRF5, IRF8, TNFAIP3, IRAK1, NFKB1, TNIP1, FAS, MIF, HGF, OPN, IL-6, CXCL8, CCR6, CTGF, ITGAM, CAV1, MECP2, SOX5, JAZF1, DNASEIL3, XRCC1, XRCC4, PXK, CSK, GRB10, NOTCH4, RHOB, KIAA0319, PSD3 and PSOR1C1. These genes encode proteins mainly involved in immune regulation and inflammation, and some of them function in transcription, kinase activity, DNA cleavage and repair. The discovery of various SSc-associated genes is important in understanding the genetics of SSc and potential pathogenesis that contribute to the development of this disease.The Open Rheumatology Journal 09/2014; 8(1):29-42. DOI:10.2174/1874312901408010029
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ABSTRACT: Significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic basis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in recent years. Genomewide association and other large-scale genetic studies have identified 30 largely immunity-related genes which are significantly associated with SSc. We review these studies, along with genomewide expression studies, proteomic studies, genetic mouse models, and insights from rare sclerodermatous diseases. Collectively, these studies have begun to identify pathways that are relevant to SSc pathogenesis. The findings presented in this review illustrate how both genetic and genomic aberrations play important roles in the development of SSc. However, despite these recent discoveries, there remain major gaps between current knowledge of SSc, a unified understanding of pathogenesis, and effective treatment. To this aim, we address the important issue of SSc heterogeneity and discuss how future research needs to address this in order to develop a clearer understanding of this devastating and complex disease.Current Rheumatology Reports 03/2015; 17(3):484. DOI:10.1007/s11926-014-0484-x · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Major work has been done in order to improve the understanding of systemic sclerosis (SSc) pathogenesis. A number of new experimental models have been set up, that should help to understand the disease pathogenesis and test new therapeutic targets. Reactive oxygen species represent a hallmark of the pathogenesis of SSc, both at the fibroblast and at the endothelial cell levels. Although a large number of genetic studies have been conducted, it is still difficult to identify a genetic background specific to SSc, and the major progress in this setting is probably the identification of an interferon signature. Besides endothelial cells and fibroblasts, major development has been made in the understanding of the role of B cells and autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of SSc. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of SSc through the secretion of CXCL4, although these data will need to be confirmed in the near future.La Presse Médicale 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.08.001 · 1.17 Impact Factor