Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation: One or Two Depends on Your Point of View

Stanford University.
Emotion Review (Impact Factor: 2.9). 01/2011; 3(1):8-16. DOI: 10.1177/1754073910380974
Source: PubMed


Emotion regulation has the odd distinction of being a wildly popular construct whose scientific existence is in considerable doubt. In this article, we discuss the confusion about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can and should be distinguished from one another. We describe a continuum of perspectives on emotion, and highlight how different (often mutually incompatible) perspectives on emotion lead to different views about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can be usefully distinguished. We argue that making differences in perspective explicit serves the function of allowing researchers with different theoretical commitments to collaborate productively despite seemingly insurmountable differences in terminology and methods.

Download full-text


Available from: Lisa Feldman Barrett,
  • Source
    • "Gross [6] proposed an important theoretical framework that describes how individuals regulate emotions they have, when they have them and how they experience and express them. According to this emotion regulation framework there are two major categories of emotion regulation strategies: the first category concerns strategies that are used before an emotion has an effect on the behavior (antecedent-focused strategies) and the second category concerns strategies that are used when the emotional response is already coming into effect in the sense of expression or behavior after an emotion is generated (response-focused strategy) [13], [15], [20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper a cognitive model is introduced which integrates a model for emotion generation with models for three different emotion regulation strategies. Given a stressful situation, humans often apply multiple emotion regulation strategies. The presented computational model has been designed based on principles from recent neurological theories on brain imaging, and psychological and emotion regulation theories. More specifically, the model involves emotion generation and integrates models for three emotion regulation strategies: reappraisal, expressive suppression, and situation modification. The model was designed as a dynamical system. Simulation experiments are reported showing the role of three emotion regulation strategies. The simulation results show how a potential stressful situation in principle could lead to emotional strain and how this can be avoided by applying the three emotion regulation strategies decreasing the stressful effects.
    IAT'15; 09/2015
  • Source
    • "Statebased assessments of emotion regulation difficulties would also have utility in the context of psychological treatments. Maladaptive efforts to modulate unwanted or aversive emotional experiences are theorized to play a central role in numerous forms of psychopathology (e.g., eating disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders; e.g., Baker, Piper, McCarthy, Majeskie, & Fiore, 2004; Boden, Kulkarni, Shurick, Bonn-Miller, & Gross, 2014; Haynos & Fruzzetti, 2011; Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012; Linehan, 1993; Mennin, Heimberg, Turk, & Fresco, 2002) and, as such, are an important target of interventions for these disorders (see, Gratz, Weiss, & Tull, 2015). The development of an empirically supported measure of state emotion regulation difficulties would have utility for both research (e.g., in studies investigating emotion regulation as an outcome or mechanism of psychological treatments, or seeking to examine the factors that contribute to the use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies) and clinical practice (e.g., providing a way to track changes in emotion regulation difficulties in response to specific stimuli over the course of treatment). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Existing measures of emotion dysregulation typically assess dispositional tendencies and are therefore not well suited for study designs that require repeated assessments over brief intervals. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a state-based multidimensional measure of emotion dysregulation. Psychometric properties of the State Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (S-DERS) were examined in a large representative community sample of young adult women drawn from four sites (N = 484). Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution, with results supporting the internal consistency, construct validity, and predictive validity of the total scale and the four subscales: Nonacceptance (i.e., nonacceptance of current emotions), Modulate (i.e., difficulties modulating emotional and behavioral responses in the moment), Awareness (i.e., limited awareness of current emotions), and Clarity (i.e., limited clarity about current emotions). S-DERS scores were significantly associated with trait-based measures of emotion dysregulation, affect intensity/reactivity, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness, as well as measures of substance use problems. Moreover, significant associations were found between the S-DERS and state-based laboratory measures of emotional reactivity, even when controlling for the corresponding original DERS scales. Results provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the S-DERS as a state-based measure of emotion regulation difficulties. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Assessment 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1073191115601218 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In the literature (Gross & Barrett, 2011), emotion generation and emotion regulation are sometimes considered as overlapping in one process. In the model introduced here on the one hand both sub processes (emotion generation and regulation) are clearly distinguished, on the other hand, by the cyclic connections between them and the dynamics created by these cycles, the processes are fully integrated into one process. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper a computational model is presented that describes the role of emotion regulation to reduce the influences of negative events on mood. Emotion regulation is a process based on a set of regulatory strategies used by persons to down-regulate their negative emotions or to up-regulate their positive emotions. For a given situation, the selection of specific regulation strategies is dependent on that particular situation. The current paper presents work focusing on a cognitive reappraisal (re-interpretation) strategy, that involves changing the way one interprets a stimulus or situation, or alter the semantic representation of an emotional stimulus in order to reduce the influence of such stimuli. The model incorporates an earlier model of mood dynamics and a model for the dynamics of emotion generation and regulation. Example model simulations are described that illustrate how adequately emotion regulation skills can avoid or delay development of a depression. The presented computational analysis shows how regulation of stressful emotions helps unstable persons to avoid a depression, and to postpone it in very unstable persons. Furthermore, the analysis shows that if a stressful event persists for a longer time period, then emotion regulation can also help an unstable person to prevent the mood level from becoming too low, for a certain time.
    Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 07/2015; 13. DOI:10.1016/j.bica.2015.06.003
Show more