In this study, we investigated the effects of a combination of Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors on the muscular tone of the corpus cavernosum and potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells. Strips of corpus cavernosum from male New Zealand white rabbits were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension studies. After contraction with 1×10⁻⁵ mol l⁻¹ norepinephrine, GBE (0.01-1 mg ml⁻¹) and mirodenafil (0.01-100 nmol l⁻¹) were added together into the organ bath. In electrophysiological studies, whole-cell currents were recorded by the conventional patch-clamp technique in cultured smooth muscle cells of the human corpus cavernosum. The corpus cavernosum was relaxed in response to GBE in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.64%±8.35% at 0.01 mg ml⁻¹ to 52.28% ± 11.42% at 1 mg ml⁻¹). After pre-treatment with 0.03 mg ml⁻¹ of GBE, the relaxant effects of mirodenafil were increased at all concentrations. After tetraethylammonium (TEA) (1 mmol l⁻¹) administration, the increased effects were inhibited (P<0.01). Extracellular administration of GBE increased the whole-cell K(+) outward currents in a dose-dependent fashion. The increase of the outward current was inhibited by 1 mmol l⁻¹ TEA. These results suggest that GBE could increase the relaxant potency of mirodenafil even at a minimally effective dose. The K(+) flow through potassium channels might be one of the mechanisms involved in this synergistic relaxation.
"The effect of mirodenafil on tissue relaxation in a rabbit model organ bath study demonstrated that the corpus cavernosum relaxes in response to mirodenafil in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the relaxation effects of mirodenafil increase when rabbits are pre-treated with Ginkgo biloba extract (vasorelaxive effects are the main function) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the most commonly used treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). Since the launch of sildenafil, several drugs-including mirodenafil, sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), tadalafil, vardenafil HCL (vardenafil), udenafil, and avanafil-have become available. Mirodenafil is a newly developed pyrrolopyrimidinone compound, which is a potent, reversible, and selective oral PDE5 inhibitor. Mirodenafil was launched in Korea in 2007, and an orally disintegrating film of mirodenafil was developed in 2011 for benefitting patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets. This study aimed to review the pharmacokinetic characteristic profile of mirodenafil and report evidence on its efficacy in the case of ED. In addition, we reviewed randomized controlled studies of mirodenafil's daily administration and efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED).
Aim. This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection.
Methods. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay.
Main Outcome Measures. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts.
Results. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group.
Conclusions. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function. Kam SC, Do JM, Choi JH, Jeon BT, Roh GS, and Hyun JS. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 08/2012; 9(10):2544-51. DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02889.x · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED), and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus, we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study. As a comparative control, the results were compared to those obtained using KRG. In addition, possible mechanisms of action for GB0710 were investigated. While KRG and GB0710 both displayed dose-dependent relaxation effects on precontracted rabbit CCSM in vitro, GB0710 was shown to be more potent than KRG. The GB0710-induced relaxation could be partially reduced by removing the endothelium. In addition, pre-treatment with several nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors significantly inhibited the relaxation of muscle strips. Furthermore, administration of GB0710 increased intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in a rat in vivo model in both a dose- and duration-dependent manner. Intracellular NO production in human microvascular endothelial cells could be induced by GB0710 and inhibited by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. In conclusion, GB0710 had a greater relaxation effect on rabbit CCSM than did KRG extract, and increased ICP in a rat model in both a dose- and a duration-dependent manner. This relaxing effect might be mediated by NO production.Asian Journal of Andrology advance online publication, 27 May 2013; doi:10.1038/aja.2013.49.
Asian Journal of Andrology 05/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1038/aja.2013.49 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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