Hpa2 required by HrpF to translocate Xanthomonas oryzae transcriptional activator-like effectors into rice for pathogenicity.
ABSTRACT Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causative agent of bacterial leaf streak, injects a plethora of effectors through the type III secretion system (T3SS) into rice cells to cause disease. The T3SS, encoded by the hrp genes, is essential for the pathogen to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco and for pathogenicity in host rice. Whether or not a putative lytic transglycosylase, Hpa2, interacts with a translocon protein, HrpF, to facilitate bacterial pathogenicity remains unknown. Here we demonstrated that both the hpa2 and hrpF genes are required for the pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strain RS105 in rice but not for HR induction in tobacco. The expression of hpa2 was positively regulated by HrpG and HrpD6 but not by HrpX. In vivo secretion and subcellular localization analyses confirmed that Hpa2 secretion is dependent on HpaB (a T3SS exit protein) and that Hpa2 binds to the host cell membrane. Protein-protein assays demonstrated that Hpa2 interacts with HrpF. In planta translocation of AvrXa10 indicated that the mutation in hpa2 and hrpF inhibits the injection of the HpaB-dependent transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effector into rice. These findings suggest that Hpa2 and HrpF form a complex to translocate T3S effectors into plant cells for pathogenesis in host rice.
Article: High-throughput genomic sequencing of cassava bacterial blight strains identifies conserved effectors to target for durable resistance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), is the most important bacterial disease of cassava, a staple food source for millions of people in developing countries. Here we present a widely applicable strategy for elucidating the virulence components of a pathogen population. We report Illumina-based draft genomes for 65 Xam strains and deduce the phylogenetic relatedness of Xam across the areas where cassava is grown. Using an extensive database of effector proteins from animal and plant pathogens, we identify the effector repertoire for each sequenced strain and use a comparative sequence analysis to deduce the least polymorphic of the conserved effectors. These highly conserved effectors have been maintained over 11 countries, three continents, and 70 y of evolution and as such represent ideal targets for developing resistance strategies.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2012; 109(28):E1972-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor