Despite the beneficial effects of alagebrium (ALA), a putative advanced glycation end-product (AGE) breaker, on diabetic nephropathy, its renoprotective mechanisms are incompletely understood. Since oxidative stress exacerbates diabetic renal injury through interaction with AGE, the present study examined the antioxidative property of ALA in db/db mice, mesangial cells cultured under high glucose or H(2)O(2) and a test tube.
ALA (2 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally for 12 weeks to 8-week-old db/m and db/db (D(ALA)E) mice or for 4 weeks to 16-week-old db/db mice (D(ALA)L). Oxidative stress markers (nitrotyrosine accumulation, expression and translocation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, cellular DCF-DA fluorescence) together with urinary albumin excretion and histological changes including mesangial expansion were measured. The concentration of H(2)O(2) in the presence and absence of ALA was measured by iodometric analysis in a test tube.
ALA significantly reduced not only urinary albumin excretion and renal pathological changes but also accumulation of pentosidine and nitrotyrosine and expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in db/db mice regardless of treatment protocol. In mesangial cells, ALA effectively prevented not only high glucose- but also H(2)O(2)-induced membrane translocation of NADPH oxidase subunit (p47 phox, p67 phox and rac1) and protein kinase C isoform (α, βI and βII) and Nox4 messenger RNA expression concomitant with cellular reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, ALA directly decreased H(2)O(2) in a test tube.
ALA has both direct and indirect antioxidant effects that may play important roles in ALA's renoprotective effect in diabetic kidneys.
"In addition to the formation of AGEs, MG also stimulates the formation of ROS . Our studies showed that alagebrium only partially reduced the formation of oxidized DCF, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG in high glucose-treated EA. hy926 cells (Figs. 3, 4), although it can react with H2O2 in the test tube  and completely reduced the glucose-increased H2O2 formation in our test cells (Fig. 3). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used cultured endothelial cells as a model to examine whether up-regulation of aldolase B and enhanced methylglyoxal (MG) formation play an important role in high glucose-induced overproduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs), oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction. High glucose (25 mM) incubation up-regulated mRNA levels of aldose reductase (an enzyme converting glucose to fructose) and aldolase B (a key enzyme that catalyzes MG formation from fructose) and enhanced MG formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HUVEC-derived EA. hy926 cells. High glucose-increased MG production in EA. hy926 cells was completely prevented by siRNA knockdown of aldolase B, but unaffected by siRNA knockdown of aldolase A, an enzyme responsible for MG formation during glycolysis. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase which produces MG during the metabolism of lipid and proteins, respectively, did not alter MG production. Both high glucose (25 mM) and MG (30, 100 µM) increased the formation of N(ε)-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL, a MG-induced AGE), oxidative stress (determined by the generation of oxidized DCF, H(2)O(2), protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG), O-GlcNAc modification (product of the hexosamine pathway), membrane protein kinase C activity and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in EA. hy926 cells. However, the above metabolic and signaling alterations induced by high glucose were completely prevented by knockdown of aldolase B and partially by application of aminoguanidine (a MG scavenger) or alagebrium (an AGEs breaker). In conclusion, efficient inhibition of aldolase B can prevent high glucose-induced overproduction of MG and related cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41495. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041495 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Renal Nox4 plays an important role in increased oxidative stress leading to DN (31), and H2O2 upregulates Nox4 mRNA expression in MMCs (32). We, therefore, measured Nox4 mRNA expression in addition to urinary LPO and nitrotyrosine accumulation as markers of renal oxidative stress. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in diabetes complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) as well as glucose are increased in diabetes, and peroxisomes and mitochondria participate in FFA oxidation in an interconnected fashion. Therefore, we investigated whether deficiency of catalase, a major peroxisomal antioxidant, accelerates DN through peroxisomal dysfunction and abnormal renal FFA metabolism. Diabetes was induced by multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin into catalase knock-out (CKO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Murine mesangial cells (MMCs) transfected with catalase small interfering RNA followed by catalase overexpression were used to further elucidate the role of endogenous catalase. Despite equivalent hyperglycemia, parameters of DN, along with markers of oxidative stress, were more accelerated in diabetic CKO mice than in diabetic WT mice up to 10 weeks of diabetes. CKO mice and MMCs showed impaired peroxisomal/mitochondrial biogenesis and FFA oxidation. Catalase deficiency increased mitochondrial ROS and fibronectin expression in response to FFAs, which were effectively restored by catalase overexpression or N-acetylcysteine. These data provide unprecedented evidence that FFA-induced peroxisomal dysfunction exacerbates DN and that endogenous catalase plays an important role in protecting the kidney from diabetic stress through maintaining peroxisomal and mitochondrial fitness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Various pathways in addition to the renin-angiotensinogen system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Strategies to interrupt these pathophysiological pathways are a key to the development of new targeted therapies to prevent progression of diabetic nephropathy and are on the horizon. The various pharmacological drugs tried include aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor blocking the first step in the renin pathway, and pentoxifylline and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, which have antiinflammatory properties and have shown some promising results in management of diabetic nephropathy. Others include endothelin antagonists and vitamin D analogs which have been shown to decrease urinary albumin excretion. Inhibitors of advanced glycation and oxidative stress and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 have proved useful in animal models of diabetic nephropathy. Others include ruboxistaurin, which blocks protein kinase C overexpression. Such targeted therapies would halt and might even reverse progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Journal of nephrology 11/2011; 24(6):686-95. DOI:10.5301/jn.5000041 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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