Renoprotective antioxidant effect of alagebrium in experimental diabetes.
ABSTRACT Despite the beneficial effects of alagebrium (ALA), a putative advanced glycation end-product (AGE) breaker, on diabetic nephropathy, its renoprotective mechanisms are incompletely understood. Since oxidative stress exacerbates diabetic renal injury through interaction with AGE, the present study examined the antioxidative property of ALA in db/db mice, mesangial cells cultured under high glucose or H(2)O(2) and a test tube.
ALA (2 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally for 12 weeks to 8-week-old db/m and db/db (D(ALA)E) mice or for 4 weeks to 16-week-old db/db mice (D(ALA)L). Oxidative stress markers (nitrotyrosine accumulation, expression and translocation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, cellular DCF-DA fluorescence) together with urinary albumin excretion and histological changes including mesangial expansion were measured. The concentration of H(2)O(2) in the presence and absence of ALA was measured by iodometric analysis in a test tube.
ALA significantly reduced not only urinary albumin excretion and renal pathological changes but also accumulation of pentosidine and nitrotyrosine and expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in db/db mice regardless of treatment protocol. In mesangial cells, ALA effectively prevented not only high glucose- but also H(2)O(2)-induced membrane translocation of NADPH oxidase subunit (p47 phox, p67 phox and rac1) and protein kinase C isoform (α, βI and βII) and Nox4 messenger RNA expression concomitant with cellular reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, ALA directly decreased H(2)O(2) in a test tube.
ALA has both direct and indirect antioxidant effects that may play important roles in ALA's renoprotective effect in diabetic kidneys.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that vascular cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, which may be involved in vascular injury. However, the pathological role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in diabetes or in the insulin-resistant state remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate) on ROS production in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Exposure of cultured SMCs or ECs to a high glucose level (400 mg/dl) for 72 h significantly increased the free radical production compared with low glucose level exposure (100 mg/dl). Treatment of the cells for 3 h with phorbol myristic acid (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, also increased free radical production. This increase was restored to the control value by diphenylene iodonium, a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, suggesting ROS production through PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. The increase in free radical production by high glucose level exposure was completely restored by both diphenylene iodonium and GF109203X, a PKC-specific inhibitor. Exposure to palmitate (200 micromol/l) also increased free radical production, which was concomitant with increases in diacylglycerol level and PKC activity. Again, this increase was restored to the control value by both diphenylene iodonium and GF109203X. The present results suggest that both high glucose level and palmitate may stimulate ROS production through PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in both vascular SMCs and ECs. This finding may be involved in the excessive acceleration of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome.Diabetes 12/2000; 49(11):1939-45. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the relationship between the development of fluorescence related to advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) in the kidney and experimental diabetic nephropathy over a 32-wk period. Control, untreated diabetic, and aminoguanidine-treated diabetic rats were followed for 32 wk with eight weekly measurements of urinary albumin excretion. After 32 wk, collagen-related fluorescence in aorta and kidney (whole kidney, isolated glomeruli, and renal tubules) and glomerular ultrastructure were evaluated. Diabetes was associated with a significant increase in collagen-related fluorescence in the aorta and kidney. Aminoguanidine prevented the increases in collagen-related fluorescence in aorta, isolated glomeruli, and renal tubules but not in whole kidney. Diabetes was associated with increased albuminuria, fractional mesangial volume, and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness. Aminoguanidine attenuated the rise in albuminuria and prevented mesangial expansion without influencing GBM thickness in diabetic rats. The concomitant changes in collagen-related fluorescence, albuminuria, and mesangial expansion with aminoguanidine therapy are consistent with the hypothesis that AGEs may play a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy.Diabetes 11/1991; 40(10):1328-34. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis is a component of a variety of cardiovascular diseases and may be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to determine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in ROS-induced VSMC apoptosis. Rat aortic VSMCs were exposed to H(2)O(2), and the nature of cell death was characterized in the absence or presence of different PKC inhibitors. The results demonstrate that exposure of VSMCs to H(2)O(2) led to a dose-dependent (25 to 100 micromol/L) and time-dependent (peak at 2 minutes) activation of PKC. Among the PKC isoforms alpha, beta, delta, epsilon, and zeta, only PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon were found to change their intracellular distribution on H(2)O(2) treatment. Apoptosis was the predominant form of cell death when PKC had been activated by H(2)O(2) alone or by H(2)O(2) in the presence of 50 nmol/L phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In contrast, necrosis became the predominant form of cell death when PKC had been downregulated by prolonged exposure to 200 nmol/L phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate or inhibited by 50 nmol/L staurosporine, 100 nmol/L calphostin C, or 30 micromol/L H-7. In addition, caspase-3 was activated in H(2)O(2)-induced VSMC apoptosis but not when PKC was downregulated or inhibited. Inhibition of caspase-3 by 50 micromol/L Ac-DEVD-CHO could significantly attenuate H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and was not associated with the induction of necrosis. We conclude that in VSMCs, PKC converts the ROS-induced signals from necrotic cell death to the activation of an apoptotic cell death program. These data imply a novel and important role of PKC for the pathogenesis of such vascular diseases as atherosclerosis, restenosis, and hypertension.Circulation 09/1999; 100(9):967-73. · 15.20 Impact Factor