A TPO receptor agonist, ALXN4100TPO, mitigates radiation-induced lethality and stimulates hematopoiesis in CD2F1 mice
Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI), Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20889 USA.Radiation Research (Impact Factor: 2.91). 06/2011; 175(6):746-58. DOI: 10.1667/RR2462.1
Thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists lacking sequence homology to TPO were designed by grafting a known peptide sequence into the hinge and/or kappa constant regions of a human anti-anthrax antibody. Some of these proteins were equipotent to TPO in stimulating cMpl-r activity in vitro and in increasing platelet levels in vivo. ALXN4100TPO (4100TPO), the best agonist in this series with a K(d) of 30 nM for cMpl-r, exhibited potent activity as a radiation countermeasure in CD2F1 mice exposed to lethal total-body radiation from a cobalt-60 γ-ray source. 4100TPO (2 mg/kg, s.c.) administered once either 24 h before or 6 h after TBI showed superior protection to five daily doses given before or after TBI. Prophylactic administration (69 to 94% survival) was superior to therapeutic schedules (60% survival). 4100TPO conferred a significant survival benefit (P < 0.01) when administered 4 days before or even 12 h after exposure and across a dose range of 0.1 to 8 mg/kg. The dose reduction factors (DRFs) with a single dose of 1 mg/kg 4100TPO 24 h before or 12 h after TBI were 1.32 and 1.11, respectively (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, 4100TPO increased bone marrow cellularity and megakaryocytic development and accelerated multi-lineage hematopoietic recovery in irradiated mice, demonstrating the potential of 4100TPO as both a protector and a mitigator in the event of a radiological incident.
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ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic processes, especially megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, are highly sensitive to extracellular oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. This study examined the terminal maturation of megakaryocytes and platelet production in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) exposed to ionizing radiation. Highly purified CD34(+) cells derived from human placental/umbilical cord blood were exposed to X rays (2 Gy, 150 kVp, 20 mA; 0.5-mm aluminum and 0.3-mm copper filters) at a dose rate of approximately 1 Gy/min and then cultured in a serum-free medium supplemented with thrombopoietin and interleukin-3. The number of cells generated from X-irradiated CD34(+) cells decreased with the time in culture. However, the fraction of CD34(+)Tie-2(+) and CD41(+)Tie-2(+) cells among the total cells generated from X-irradiated cells increased significantly in comparison to nonirradiated controls on day 7. In addition, the CD42a(+) particles, which appeared to be platelets, generated from the X-irradiated HSPCs appeared to be normal. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the expression of various genes in cells harvested from the cultures showed that the early hematopoiesis-related genes FLI1, HOXB4 and Tie-2, the cytokine receptor genes KIT and IL3RA, and the oxidative stress-related genes HO1 and NQO1 were upregulated on day 7. These results suggest that normal terminal maturation of megakaryocytes and platelet production occur in residual HSPCs after exposure to ionizing radiation despite the adverse effect of radiation on proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs. Ionizing radiation may have the potential to promote both megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis.Radiation Research 12/2011; 176(6):716-24. DOI:10.2307/41408622 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The hazard of exposure to ionizing radiation is a serious public and military health concern that has justified substantial efforts to develop medically effective radiation countermeasure approaches, including radiation protectors, mitigators, and therapeutics. Although such efforts were initiated more than half a century ago, no safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the acute radiation syndrome. This situation has prompted intensified research among government laboratories, academic institutions, and pharmaceutical companies to identify a new generation of countermeasures. In this communication we discuss selected promising radiation countermeasures at advanced stages of development. CONCLUSION: Other than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which has an Emergency Use Investigational New Drug (IND) status, four countermeasures have FDA IND status and other promising countermeasures are in development. Here we review primarily the in vivo efficacy of selected countermeasures in animal models and clinical studies.International Journal of Radiation Biology 12/2011; 88(4):296-310. DOI:10.3109/09553002.2012.652726 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The detonation of a nuclear weapon or a nuclear accident represent possible events with significant exposure to mixed neutron/γ-radiation fields. Although radiation countermeasures generally have been studied in subjects exposed to pure photons (γ or X rays), the mechanisms of injury of these low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations are different from those of high-LET radiation such as neutrons, and these differences may affect countermeasure efficacy. We compared 30-day survival in mice after varying doses of pure γ and mixed neutron/γ (mixed field) radiation (MF, Dn/Dt = 0.65), and also examined peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cell reconstitution, and cytokine expression. Mixed-field-irradiated mice displayed prolonged defects in T-cell populations compared to mice irradiated with pure γ photons. In mouse survival assays, the growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was effective as a (post-irradiation) mitigator against both γ-photons and mixed-field radiation, while the thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetic ALXN4100TPO was effective only against γ irradiation. The results indicate that radiation countermeasures should be tested against radiation qualities appropriate for specific scenarios before inclusion in response plans.Radiation Research 04/2012; 177(5):663-75. DOI:10.2307/41545120 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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