Thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists lacking sequence homology to TPO were designed by grafting a known peptide sequence into the hinge and/or kappa constant regions of a human anti-anthrax antibody. Some of these proteins were equipotent to TPO in stimulating cMpl-r activity in vitro and in increasing platelet levels in vivo. ALXN4100TPO (4100TPO), the best agonist in this series with a K(d) of 30 nM for cMpl-r, exhibited potent activity as a radiation countermeasure in CD2F1 mice exposed to lethal total-body radiation from a cobalt-60 γ-ray source. 4100TPO (2 mg/kg, s.c.) administered once either 24 h before or 6 h after TBI showed superior protection to five daily doses given before or after TBI. Prophylactic administration (69 to 94% survival) was superior to therapeutic schedules (60% survival). 4100TPO conferred a significant survival benefit (P < 0.01) when administered 4 days before or even 12 h after exposure and across a dose range of 0.1 to 8 mg/kg. The dose reduction factors (DRFs) with a single dose of 1 mg/kg 4100TPO 24 h before or 12 h after TBI were 1.32 and 1.11, respectively (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, 4100TPO increased bone marrow cellularity and megakaryocytic development and accelerated multi-lineage hematopoietic recovery in irradiated mice, demonstrating the potential of 4100TPO as both a protector and a mitigator in the event of a radiological incident.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The hazard of exposure to ionizing radiation is a serious public and military health concern that has justified substantial efforts to develop medically effective radiation countermeasure approaches, including radiation protectors, mitigators, and therapeutics. Although such efforts were initiated more than half a century ago, no safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the acute radiation syndrome. This situation has prompted intensified research among government laboratories, academic institutions, and pharmaceutical companies to identify a new generation of countermeasures. In this communication we discuss selected promising radiation countermeasures at advanced stages of development. CONCLUSION: Other than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which has an Emergency Use Investigational New Drug (IND) status, four countermeasures have FDA IND status and other promising countermeasures are in development. Here we review primarily the in vivo efficacy of selected countermeasures in animal models and clinical studies.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 12/2011; 88(4):296-310. DOI:10.3109/09553002.2012.652726 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that sodium orthovanadate (vanadate), an inorganic vanadium compound, could effectively suppress radiation-induced p53-mediated apoptosis via both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways. As a potent radiation protector administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight (20 mg/kg) prior to total body irradiation (TBI) by intra-peritoneal (ip) injection, it completely protected mice from hematopoietic syndrome and partially from gastrointestinal syndrome. In the present study, radiation mitigation effects from vanadate were investigated by ip injection of vanadate after TBI in mice. Results showed that a single administration of vanadate at a dose of 20 mg/kg markedly improved the 30-day survival rate and the peripheral blood hemogram, relieved bone marrow aplasia and decreased occurrence of the bone marrow micronucleated erythrocytes in the surviving animals. The dose reduction factor was 1.2 when a single dose of 20 mg/kg was administered 15 min after TBI in mice using the 30-day survival test as the endpoint. Results also showed that either doubling the vanadate dose (40 mg/kg) in a single administration or continuing the vanadate treatment (after a single administration at 20 mg/kg) from the following day at a dose of 5 mg/kg per day for 4 consecutive days further significantly improved the efficacy for rescuing bone marrow failure in the 30-day survival test. Taken together, these findings indicate that vanadate would be a potent mitigator suppressing the acute lethality (hematopoietic syndrome) and minimizing the detrimental effects (anhematopoiesis and delayed genotoxic effects) induced by TBI in mice.
Journal of Radiation Research 01/2013; 54(4). DOI:10.1093/jrr/rrs140 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALXN4100TPO, a thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, increases platelets, abrogates radiation-induced thrombocytopenia and affords significant survival benefit to lethally irradiated mice. This preliminary nonclinical safety study assessed effects of a single subcutaneous (sc) administration of ALXN4100TPO in CD2F1 mice randomized into naïve, control antibody (ALXN4200, 100 mg/kg), low (1 mg/kg), medium (10 mg/kg), or high (100 mg/kg) ALXN4100TPO doses. End points included clinical observations, body weight changes, hematology, histopathology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics by measuring platelet counts, and endogenous TPO (eTPO) levels. Salient findings were prominent increase in platelet counts and end cells of myeloid and lymphoid lineages; elevated megakaryopoiesis in bone marrow; and extramedullary hematopoiesis in spleen and liver. Serum ALXN4100TPO levels were maximum 24 hours after administration, with a half-life of 13 days. Endogenous TPO levels were elevated in 10 and 100 mg/kg ALXN4100TPO-treated groups. In conclusion, ALXN4100TPO (1-100 mg/kg, sc) treatment in CD2F1 mice resulted in profound pharmacological changes in the hematopoietic tissue; however, no life-threatening adverse events were observed.
International Journal of Toxicology 03/2013; 32(2):100-12. DOI:10.1177/1091581813482336 · 1.29 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.