Proteomic Evaluation and Validation of Cathepsin D Regulated Proteins in Macrophages Exposed to Streptococcus pneumoniae
ABSTRACT Macrophages are central effectors of innate immune responses to bacteria. We have investigated how activation of the abundant macrophage lysosomal protease, cathepsin D, regulates the macrophage proteome during killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Using the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A, we demonstrate that cathepsin D differentially regulates multiple targets out of 679 proteins identified and quantified by eight-plex isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation. Our statistical analysis identified 18 differentially expressed proteins that passed all paired t-tests (α = 0.05). This dataset was enriched for proteins regulating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis or inhibiting competing death programs. Five proteins were selected for further analysis. Western blotting, followed by pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation of cathepsin D, verified cathepsin D-dependent regulation of these proteins, after exposure to S. pneumoniae. Superoxide dismutase-2 up-regulation was temporally related to increased reactive oxygen species generation. Gelsolin, a known regulator of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, was down-regulated in association with cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF2), a regulator of protein translation, was also down-regulated by cathepsin D. Using absence of the negative regulator of eEF2, eEF2 kinase, we confirm that eEF2 function is required to maintain expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, delaying macrophage apoptosis and confirm using a murine model that maintaining eEF2 function is associated with impaired macrophage apoptosis-associated killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. These findings demonstrate that cathepsin D regulates multiple proteins controlling the mitochondrial pathway of macrophage apoptosis or competing death processes, facilitating intracellular bacterial killing.
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ABSTRACT: Nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is one of the most produced engineered nanomaterials and therefore carries a high risk for workplace exposure. In several nanosafety studies, exposure to nTiO2 has been shown to trigger inflammation in mice lung and to cause oxidative stress. Here, cytoplasmic proteome changes in human monocyte derived macrophages were investigated with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry to evaluate the adverse cellular effects after exposure to different types of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Both studied TiO2 NPs (rutile TiO2 with or without silica coating) evoked similar proteome alterations. The identified proteins were linked to metabolic homeostasis, cytoskeleton remodeling and oxidative stress. The abundances of chloride intracellular channel protein 1 and cathepsin D changed only after exposure to nTiO2 as compared to a coarse particle analog. Enrichment analysis revealed that 70% of the proteins with changed intensities contained known acetylation sites, and it was possible to confirm a significant induction of cytoplasmic protein acetylation after nTiO2 exposure. The course of the events during phagocytosis could account for the observed membrane maintenance, metabolic and cytoskeletal protein expression changes. Lysine acetylation of cytoplasmic proteins in macrophages is emerging as a major cell regulation mechanism after nTiO2 exposure.Journal of Proteomics 06/2014; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.06.011 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of mortality in the elderly. Mouse models are widely used to investigate AAA pathogenesis but their suitability for biomarker discovery is unexplored. We conducted a 3 phase study. Phase 1: Aortas from angiotensin II (ang-II) infused apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice with and without AAA were assessed via iTRAQ and analysed in silico to identify potential circulating markers. Microarray data from ApoE(-/-) mice and human patients were analysed in parallel. Phase 2: Putative markers were compared between datasets to shortlist common candidates. Phase 3: The relationship of 2 shortlisted markers and AAA presence was assessed. iTRAQ identified 8 proteins with biomarker potential. Microarray data identified 72 and 96 potential biomarkers from ApoE(-/-) mice and human patients respectively. All 3 datasets suggested apolipoprotein C1 (ApoC1) as a marker for AAA; microarray data identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a second potential marker. Plasma ApoC1 and MMP9 concentrations positively correlated with AAA diameter in ApoE(-/-) mice. ApoC1 may be a novel biomarker for AAA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 10/2014; 8(9-10). DOI:10.1002/prca.201300119 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae is complemented by induction of macrophage apoptosis. Here, we show that the toxin pneumolysin (PLY) contributes both to lysosomal/phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), an upstream event programing susceptibility to apoptosis, and to apoptosis execution via a mitochondrial pathway, through distinct mechanisms. PLY is necessary but not sufficient for the maximal induction of LMP and apoptosis. PLY's ability to induce both LMP and apoptosis is independent of its ability to form cytolytic pores and requires only the first three domains of PLY. LMP involves TLR (Toll-like receptor) but not NLRP3/ASC (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [Nod]-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) signaling and is part of a PLY-dependent but phagocytosis-independent host response that includes the production of cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). LMP involves progressive and selective permeability to 40-kDa but not to 250-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran, as PLY accumulates in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the PLY-dependent execution of apoptosis requires phagocytosis and is part of a host response to intracellular bacteria that also includes NO generation. In cells challenged with PLY-deficient bacteria, reconstitution of LMP using the lysomotrophic detergent LeuLeuOMe favored cell necrosis whereas PLY reconstituted apoptosis. The results suggest that PLY contributes to macrophage activation and cytokine production but also engages LMP. Following bacterial phagocytosis, PLY triggers apoptosis and prevents macrophage necrosis as a component of a broad-based antimicrobial strategy. This illustrates how a key virulence factor can become the focus of a multilayered and coordinated innate response by macrophages, optimizing pathogen clearance and limiting inflammation.mBio 08/2014; 5(5). DOI:10.1128/mBio.01710-14 · 6.88 Impact Factor