Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation

Laboratories of Respiratory Biology
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 11.99). 04/2011; 184(1):37-49. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201010-1637OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.
To determine the role of COX metabolites in regulating Th17 cell differentiation and function during allergic lung inflammation.
COX-1(-/-), COX-2(-/-), and wild-type mice were studied in an in vivo model of ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation and an in vitro model of Th17 differentiation using flow cytometry, cytokine assays, confocal microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. In addition, the role of specific eicosanoids and their receptors was examined using synthetic prostaglandins (PGs), selective inhibitors, and siRNA knockdown.
Th17 cell differentiation in lung, lymph nodes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly lower in COX-2(-/-) mice after ovalbumin sensitization and exposure in vivo. In vitro studies revealed significantly impaired Th17 cell differentiation of COX-2(-/-) naive CD4(+) T cells with decreased Stat3 phosphorylation and RORγt expression. Synthetic PGF(2α) and PGI(2) enhanced Th17 cell differentiation of COX-2(-/-) CD4(+) T cells in vitro. The selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and PGF(2α) receptor and PGI(2) receptor siRNA knockdown significantly decreased Th17 cell differentiation in vitro. Administration of synthetic PGs restored accumulation of Th17 cells in lungs of allergic COX-2(-/-) mice in vivo.
COX-2 is a critical regulator of Th17 cell differentiation during allergic lung inflammation via autocrine signaling of PGI(2) and PGF(2α) through their respective cell surface receptors.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 (STAT3), one of the major regulators of inflammation, plays multiple roles in cellular transcription, differentiation, proliferation, and survival in human diseases. Dysregulation of STAT3 is related to the severe airway inflammation associated with asthma. FLLL31 is a newly developed compound based on the herbal medicine curcumin, which specifically suppresses the activation of STAT3. However, the function of FLLL31 on inflammatory diseases, especially on the regulation of airway inflammation, has not been fully studied. In our prior investigations, we developed a mouse model that was challenged with a mixture of DRA allergens (including house dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillums species) to mimic the severe airway inflammation observed in human patients. In this study, we performed a series of experiments on the inflammatory regulation activities of FLLL31 in both in vitro cultured cells and our in vivo DRA-challenged mouse model. Our results show that FLLL31 exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on macrophage activation, lymphocyte differentiation, and pro-inflammatory factor production. Importantly, FLLL31 significantly inhibited airway inflammation and recruitment of inflammatory cells in the DRA-challenged mouse model. Based on these results, we conclude that FLLL31 is a potential therapeutic agent that can be used against severe airway inflammation diseases.
    International immunopharmacology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.04.020 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a facilitating process for multiple cancer types. It is believed to affect cancer development and progression through several etiologic pathways including increased levels of DNA adduct formation, increased angiogenesis and altered anti-apoptotic signaling. This review highlights the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic studies and discusses the various cellular mediators of inflammation characterizing the innate immune system response to infection and chronic insult from environmental factors. Included is a review of six classes of inflammation-related biomarkers: cytokines/chemokines, immune-related effectors, acute phase proteins, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase-related factors, and mediators such as transcription factors and growth factors. For each of these biomarkers we provide a brief overview of the etiologic role in the inflammation response and how they have been related to cancer etiology and progression within the literature. We provide a discussion of the common techniques available for quantification of each marker including strengths, weaknesses and potential pitfalls. Subsequently, we highlight a few under-studied measures to characterize the inflammatory response and their potential utility in epidemiologic studies of cancer. Finally, we suggest integrative methods for future studies to apply multi-faceted approaches to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and their roles in cancer development.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 06/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0064 · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fatty acids are involved in T cell biology both as nutrients important for energy production as well as signaling molecules. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events, although the molecular mechanisms of these actions have not yet been fully elucidated. Some of these immune activities are linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alteration of the composition of cellular membranes and the consequent changes in signaling pathways linked to membrane raft-associated proteins. However, significant aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid bioactivities are mediated through their transformation to specific lipid mediators, products of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, or cytochrome P450 enzymatic reactions. Resulting bioactive metabolites including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and endocannabinoids are produced by and/or act upon T leukocytes through cell surface receptors and have been shown to alter T cell activation and differentiation, proliferation, cytokine production, motility, and homing events. Detailed appreciation of the mode of action of these lipids presents opportunities for the design and development of therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating T cell function.
    Frontiers in Immunology 02/2014; 5:75. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00075

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014