Effects of lycopene and apigenin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro under angiogenic stimulation.
ABSTRACT Angiogenesis is the formation process of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. Solid tumors need angiogenesis for growth and metastasis. The suppression of tumor growth by inhibition of neoangiogenic processes represents a potential approach to cancer treatment. Lycopene has powerful antioxidant capacities and anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lycopene on angiogenesis in vitro. For this reason, we measured in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells including parameters of cell proliferation, tube formation, cell migration. Lycopene and apigenin were observed to block the endothelial cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, they significantly decreased the capillary-like tube lengths, tube formation and endothelial cell migration. This study provides indications that apigenin and lycopene, which are considered as chemopreventive agents, to be effective in vitro on endothelial cells and angiogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in regular dietary intake might prevent and reverse cellular carcinogenesis, reducing the incidence of primary tumours. Bioactive components present in food can simultaneously modulate more than one carcinogenic process, including cancer metabolism, hormonal balance, transcriptional activity, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Some studies have shown an inverse correlation between a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and carotenoids and a low incidence of different types of cancer. Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid found in tomatoes, exhibits a high antioxidant capacity and has been shown to prevent cancer, as evidenced by clinical trials and studies in cell culture and animal models. In vitro studies have shown that lycopene treatment can selectively arrest cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting normal cells. In vivo studies have revealed that lycopene treatment inhibits tumour growth in the liver, lung, prostate, breast, and colon. Clinical studies have shown that lycopene protects against prostate cancer. One of the main challenges in cancer prevention is the integration of new molecular findings into clinical practice. Thus, the identification of molecular biomarkers associated with lycopene levels is essential for improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying its antineoplastic activity.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:705121. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lycopene and its metabolite apo-10'-lycopenoic acid have been shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes through activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) transcription system. However, little is known about whether apo-8'-lyocpenal, one of the main metabolites of lycopene in rat livers, in lycopene-containing food, and in human plasma, has similar effects. This study investigated the effect of apo-8'-lycopenal on Nrf2-ARE system-mediated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) expression in human HepG2 cells. It was found that apo-8'-lycopenal (1-10 μM) significantly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, ARE-luciferase activity, Nrf2-ARE binding activity, chymotrypsin-like activity, and downstream HO-1 and NQO-1 expression, but decreased cytosolic Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) expression. Results also revealed that the ERK/p38-Nrf2 pathway is involved in activation of HO-1 and NQO-1 expression by apo-8'-lycopenal using Nrf2 siRNA and ERK/p38 specific inhibitors. In addition, the activation time of lycopene on nuclear Nrf2 accumulation is slower than that of apo-8'-lycopenal, suggesting that the chemopreventive effects of lycopene may be partially attributed to its metabolites.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2012; 60(6):1576-85. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limited in vitro data show that lycopene may be anti-angiogenic but with unclear mechanisms. Here, we employed ex vivo and in vivo assays to substantiate the anti-angiogenic action of lycopene and determined its molecular mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The anti-angiogenic activity of lycopene was confirmed by ex vivo rat aortic ring and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane assays. Furthermore, the in vivo matrigel plug assay in mice demonstrated that lycopene implanted s.c. at the highest dose used (400 μg/plug) completely inhibited the formation of vascular endothelial cells induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). As expected, lycopene inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in HUVECs, and such actions were accompanied by reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and protein expression of Rac1, and by enhancing protein expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Moreover, lycopene attenuated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2)-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and Akt as well as protein expression of PI3K. Our data demonstrate the anti-angiogenic effect of lycopene both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-angiogenic activity of lycopene may involve inhibition of MMP-2/uPA system through VEGFR2-mediated PI3K-Akt and ERK/p38 signaling pathways.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2012; 56(6):889-99. · 4.31 Impact Factor