Article

Activation of the PIK3CA/AKT pathway suppresses senescence induced by an activated RAS oncogene to promote tumorigenesis.

Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
Molecular cell (Impact Factor: 14.46). 04/2011; 42(1):36-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.02.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in both RAS and the PTEN/PIK3CA/AKT signaling module are found in the same human tumors. PIK3CA and AKT are downstream effectors of RAS, and the selective advantage conferred by mutation of two genes in the same pathway is unclear. Based on a comparative molecular analysis, we show that activated PIK3CA/AKT is a weaker inducer of senescence than is activated RAS. Moreover, concurrent activation of RAS and PIK3CA/AKT impairs RAS-induced senescence. In vivo, bypass of RAS-induced senescence by activated PIK3CA/AKT correlates with accelerated tumorigenesis. Thus, not all oncogenes are equally potent inducers of senescence, and, paradoxically, a weak inducer of senescence (PIK3CA/AKT) can be dominant over a strong inducer of senescence (RAS). For tumor growth, one selective advantage of concurrent mutation of RAS and PTEN/PIK3CA/AKT is suppression of RAS-induced senescence. Evidence is presented that this new understanding can be exploited in rational development and targeted application of prosenescence cancer therapies.

1 Follower
 · 
441 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The outcomes of pancreatic cancer remain dismal due to late clinical presentation and the aggressive nature of the disease. A heterogeneous combination of genetic mutations, including KRAS, INK4a/CDKN2A and p53, underpin the propensity of pancreatic cancer to rapidly invade and disseminate. These oncogenes and tumour suppressors are strongly associated with cellular senescence, therefore suggesting this process as having a key role in malignant transformation. In the context of cancer, oncogenic stimuli trigger the senescent phenotype resulting in cell cycle growth arrest and prevention of progression of premalignant lesions such as PanINs. However mutations of the aforementioned oncogenes or tumour suppressors result in cells escaping senescence and thus allowing tumours to progress. This review presents current evidence regarding both senescence induction and escape with respect to pancreatic cancer, highlighting the key roles of p19ARF, p53, Rb and P16INK4a. The epigenetic regulatory component is also discussed, with relevance to DNA methylation and HDACs. Lastly the role of the tumour microenvironment, and in particular pancreatic stellate cells, is discussed with regards to the induction of a senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP), with SASP-associated secretory factors contributing to the pro-tumorigenic effects of the surrounding activated stroma. Further work is required in this field to elucidate the most important pathways relating to cellular senescence that contribute to the belligerent nature of this disease, with the aim of discovering therapeutic targets to improve patient outcomes.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 10/2014; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.10.018 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Braf(V600E) induces benign, growth-arrested melanocytic nevus development, but also drives melanoma formation. Cdkn2a loss in Braf(V600E) melanocytes in mice results in rare progression to melanoma, but only after stable growth arrest as nevi. Immediate progression to melanoma is prevented by upregulation of miR-99/100, which downregulates mTOR and IGF1R signaling. mTORC1 activation through Stk11 (Lkb1) loss abrogates growth arrest of Braf(V600E) melanocytic nevi, but is insufficient for complete progression to melanoma. Cdkn2a loss is associated with mTORC2 and Akt activation in human and murine melanocytic neoplasms. Simultaneous Cdkn2a and Lkb1 inactivation in Braf(V600E) melanocytes results in activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2/Akt, inducing rapid melanoma formation in mice. In this model, activation of both mTORC1/2 is required for Braf-induced melanomagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cancer Cell 01/2015; 27(1):41-56. DOI:10.1016/j.ccell.2014.11.014 · 23.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, with limited treatment options. AKT/mTOR and Ras/MAPK pathways are frequently deregulated in human hepatocarcinogenesis. Recently, we generated an animal model characterized by the co-expression of activated forms of AKT and Ras in the mouse liver. We found that concomitant activation of AKT/mTOR and Ras/MAPK cascades leads to rapid liver tumor development in AKT/Ras mice, mainly through mTORC1 induction. To further define the role of mTORC1 cascade in AKT/Ras induced HCC development, the mTORC1 inhibitor Rapamycin was administered to AKT/Ras mice at the time when small tumors started to emerge in the liver. Of note, Rapamycin treatment significantly delayed hepatocarcinogenesis in AKT/Ras mice. However, some microscopic lesions persisted in the livers of AKT/Ras mice despite the treatment and rapidly gave rise to HCC following Rapamycin withdrawal. Mechanistically, Rapamycin inhibited mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways, lipogenesis and glycolysis, resulting in inhibition of proliferation in the treated livers. However, activated ERK and its downstream effectors, Mnk1 and eIF4E, were strongly upregulated in the residual lesions. Concomitant suppression of AKT/mTOR and Ras/MAPK pathways was highly detrimental for the growth of AKT/Ras cells in vitro. The study indicates the existence of a complex interplay between AKT/mTOR and Ras/MAPK pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis, with important implications for the understanding of HCC pathogenesis as well as for its prevention and treatment.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2013; 12(13):1999-2010. DOI:10.4161/cc.25099 · 5.01 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
180 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014