2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/ SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology,
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention has entered a time of dramatic change. Improvements in medical management have begun to challenge traditional interventional approaches to asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Simultaneously, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CE). Finally, multiple factors beyond degree of stenosis and symptom status now mitigate clinical decision making. These factors include brain perfusion, plaque morphology, and patency of intracranial collaterals (circle of Willis). With all of these changes, it seems prudent to review the role of carotid duplex ultrasonography in the management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention. Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) for initial and serial imaging of the carotid bifurcation remains an essential component in the management of carotid bifurcation disease. However, correlative axial imaging modalities (computer tomographic angiography (CTA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA)) increasingly aid in the assessment of individual stroke risk and are important in treatment decisions. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss foundations and advances in CDU and (2) to evaluate the current role of CDU, in light of other imaging modalities, in the clinical management of carotid atherosclerosis.
International journal of vascular medicine 03/2012; 2012:187872. DOI:10.1155/2012/187872
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The severity of white matter hyperintensity, or leukoaraiosis, is a marker of cerebrovascular disease. In stroke, WMH burden is strongly linked to lacunar infarction; however, impaired cerebral perfusion due to extracranial or intracranial atherosclerosis may also contribute to WMH burden. We sought to determine whether WMH burden is associated with extracranial or intracranial stenosis in patients with AIS.
Patients with AIS with admission head/neck CTA and brain MR imaging were included in this analysis. "Extracranial stenosis" was defined as >50% stenosis in the extracranial ICA, and "intracranial," as >50% stenosis in either the middle, anterior, or posterior cerebral arteries on CTA, on either side. WMHV was determined by using a validated semiautomated protocol. Multiple regression was used to assess the relationship between WMHV and extracranial/intracranial atherosclerosis.
Of 201 subjects, 51 (25.4%) had extracranial and 63 (31.5%) had intracranial stenosis. Mean age was 62 ± 15 years; 36% were women. Mean WMHV was 12.87 cm(3) in the extracranial and 8.59 cm(3) in the intracranial stenosis groups. In univariate analysis, age (P < .0001), SBP and DBP (P = .004), and HTN (P = .0003) were associated with WMHV. Extracranial stenosis was associated with greater WMHV after adjustment for intracranial stenosis (P = .04). In multivariate analysis including extracranial stenosis, only age (P < .0001) and HTN (P = .03) demonstrated independent effects on WMHV.
In our cohort of patients with AIS, age and HTN were the strongest determinants of the WMHV severity. Future studies are warranted to unravel further association between WMHV and cerebral vessel atherosclerosis.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2012; 33(8):1591-5. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3015 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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