Persistent renal enhancement after intra-arterial versus intravenous iodixanol administration

Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, United States.
European journal of radiology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 04/2011; 80(2):378-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.02.044
Source: PubMed


To examine the clinical significance of persistent renal enhancement after iodixanol administration.
We retrospectively studied 166 consecutive patients who underwent non-enhanced abdominopelvic CT within 7 days after receiving intra-arterial (n=99) or intravenous (n=67) iodixanol. Renal attenuation was measured for each non-enhanced CT scan. Persistent renal enhancement was defined as CT attenuation>55 Hounsfield units (HU). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined as a rise in serum creatinine>0.5 mg/dL within 5 days after contrast administration.
While the intensity and frequency of persistent renal enhancement was higher after intra-arterial (mean CT attenuation of 73.7 HU, seen in 54 of 99 patients, or 55%) than intravenous contrast material administration (51.8 HU, seen in 21 of 67, or 31%, p<0.005), a multivariate regression model showed that the independent predictors of persistent renal enhancement were a shorter time interval until the subsequent non-enhanced CT (p<0.001); higher contrast dose (p<0.001); higher baseline serum creatinine (p<0.01); and older age (p<0.05). The route of contrast administration was not a predictor of persistent renal enhancement in this model. Contrast-induced nephropathy was noted in 9 patients who received intra-arterial (9%) versus 3 who received intravenous iodixanol (4%), and was more common in patients with persistent renal enhancement (p<0.01).
Persistent renal enhancement at follow-up non-contrast CT suggests a greater risk for contrast-induced nephropathy, but the increased frequency of striking renal enhancement in patients who received intra-arterial rather than intravenous contrast material also reflects the larger doses of contrast and shorter time to subsequent follow-up CT scanning for such patients.

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