Melatonin promotes osteoblastic differentiation through the BMP/ERK/Wnt signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT Although melatonin has a variety of biological actions such as antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant activities, the osteogenic mechanism of melatonin still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the molecular mechanism of melatonin was elucidated in the differentiation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Melatonin enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization compared to untreated controls in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, melatonin increased wound healing and dose-dependently activated osteogenesis markers such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and -4 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Of note, melatonin activated Wnt 5 α/β, β-catenin and the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner while it attenuated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) in MC3T3-E1 cells. Consistently, confocal microscope observation revealed that BMP inhibitor Noggin blocked melatonin-induced nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, Western blotting showed that Noggin reversed activation of β-catenin and Wnt5 α/β and suppression of GSK-3β induced by melatonin in MC3T3-E1 cells, which was similarly induced by ERK inhibitor PD98059. Overall, these findings demonstrate that melatonin promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells via the BMP/ERK/Wnt pathways.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(10):18221-18252. · 2.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis.Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects 01/2014; 8(3):160-5.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kirenol has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-arthritic activities; however, its effect on osteoblast differentiation has not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kirenol on osteoblast differentiation through activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells. Kirenol markedly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization. Kirenol not only increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as ALP, type I collagen (ColA1), and osteopontin (OPN), but also increased the expression of osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (OPG/RANKL) ratio. The effects of kirenol on osteoblast differentiation were accompanied by stimulating the expression of the BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, including BMP2, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5 (LRP5), disheveled 2 (DVL2), β-catenin, cyclin D1 (CCND1), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). In addition, kirenol up-regulated the expression of β-catenin, CCND1, ALP, and ColA1 which were down-regulated by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin. Overall, these results demonstrate that kirenol is capable of promoting osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells through activation of the BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, suggesting that it is a potential candidate target for treating or preventing osteoporosis.Fitoterapia 10/2014; · 2.23 Impact Factor