The association between neighbourhoods and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-level studies.
ABSTRACT Many studies have examined the role of neighbourhood environment on birth outcomes but, because of differences in study design and modelling techniques, have found conflicting results. Seven databases were searched (1900-2010) for multi-level observational studies related to neighbourhood and pregnancy/birth. We identified 1502 articles of which 28 met all inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to examine the association between neighbourhood income and low birthweight. Most studies showed a significant association between neighbourhood factors and birth outcomes. A significant pooled association was found for the relationship between neighbourhood income and low birthweight [odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.20] whereby women who lived in low income neighbourhoods had significantly higher odds of having a low birthweight infant. This body of literature was found to consistently document significant associations between neighbourhood factors and birth outcomes. The consistency of findings from observational studies in this area indicates a need for causal studies to determine the mechanisms by which neighbourhoods influence birth outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionNeighbourhood level deprivation has been shown to influence adverse perinatal outcomes independent of individual level socioeconomic status (SES) in countries with high income inequality, such as the United States. The present study evaluates whether municipality level deprivation defined based on education (proportion of inhabitants with university level education), income (mean income per capita) and unemployment were associated with the prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <2 standard deviations) after adjustment for individual level socio-demographics (age, parity, prior preterm births, smoking during pregnancy and SES defined based on maternal occupation at birth) in Finland.Methods The study design was cross-sectional. The data gathered from the Medical Birth Register included all singleton births (n¿=¿345,952) in 2005¿2010. We fitted Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models to account for correlation of preterm birth and SGA clustering within municipality.ResultsOf all the women with singleton pregnancies, 4.5% (n¿=¿15,615) gave birth preterm and 3.8% (n¿=¿13,111) of their newborns were classified as SGA. Individual level SES and smoking were important risk factors for each outcome in adjusted models. Controlling for individual level factors, women living in intermediate and high unemployment class municipalities were 6.0% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)¿=¿1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.12) and 13.0% (aOR¿=¿1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.20), respectively, more likely to give birth to an SGA newborn than women living in low unemployment class municipalities.Conclusions After adjustment for individual level socio-demographics, the prevalence of SGA was around 6-13% higher in municipalities with an intermediate or high unemployment rate than municipalities with the lowest unemployment rate. The results suggested that the unemployment rate has an important public health effect with clinical implications since SGA is associated with a higher risk of adverse long-term health outcomes.International Journal for Equity in Health 10/2014; 13(1):95. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Birth weight may be influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors that could interact. The main objective of our research was to investigate whether area deprivation may modify the association between drinking water exposure to a mixture of atrazine metabolites and nitrates during the second trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. We conducted a historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France between 2005 and 2010, using birth records, population census and regularly performed drinking water withdrawals at community water systems. Exposure to an atrazine metabolite/nitrate mixture in drinking water was divided into six classes according to the presence or absence of atrazine metabolites and to the terciles of nitrate concentrations in each trimester of pregnancy. We used a logistic regression to model the association between SGA and mixture exposure at the second trimester while taking into account the area deprivation measured by the Townsend index as an effect modifier and controlling for the usual confounders. We included 10,784 woman-neonate couples. The risk of SGA when exposed to second tercile of nitrate without atrazine metabolites was significantly greater in women living in less deprived areas (OR = 2.99; 95 % CI (1.14, 7.89)), whereas it was not significant in moderately and more deprived areas. One of the arguments used to explain this result is the presence of competing risk factors in poorer districts.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve.Family & community health 07/2014; 37(3):199-211. · 0.99 Impact Factor