Growth hormone pharmacogenetics: The interactive effect of a microsatellite in the IGF1 promoter region with the GHR-exon 3 and 202 A/C IGFBP3 variants on treatment outcomes of children with severe GH deficiency
Unidade de Endocrinologia do Desenvolvimento, Laboratorio de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular LIM/42 do Hospital das Clínicas, Disciplina de Endocrinologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.The Pharmacogenomics Journal (Impact Factor: 4.23). 04/2011; 12(5):439-45. DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2011.13
Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1) is a mediator of growth hormone (GH) action, and therefore, IGF1 is a candidate gene for recombinant human GH (rhGH) pharmacogenetics. Lower serum IGF1 levels were found in adults homozygous for 19 cytosine-adenosine (CA) repeats in the IGF1 promoter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of (CA)n IGF1 polymorphism, alone or in combination with GH receptor (GHR)-exon 3 and -202 A/C insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) polymorphisms, on the growth response to rhGH therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) patients. Eighty-four severe GHD patients were genotyped for (CA)n IGF1, -202 A/C IGFBP3 and GHR-exon 3 polymorphisms. Multiple linear regressions were performed to estimate the effect of each genotype, after adjustment for other influential factors. We assessed the influence of genotypes on the first year growth velocity (1st y GV) (n=84) and adult height standard deviation score (SDS) adjusted for target-height SDS (AH-TH SDS) after rhGH therapy (n=37). Homozygosity for the IGF1 19CA repeat allele was negatively correlated with 1st y GV (P=0.03) and AH-TH SDS (P=0.002) in multiple linear regression analysis. In conjunction with clinical factors, IGF1 and IGFBP3 genotypes explain 29% of the 1st y GV variability, whereas IGF1 and GHR polymorphisms explain 59% of final height-target-height SDS variability. We conclude that homozygosity for IGF1 (CA)19 allele is associated with less favorable short- and long-term growth outcomes after rhGH treatment in patients with severe GHD. Furthermore, this polymorphism exhibits a non-additive interaction with -202 A/C IGFBP3 genotype on the 1st y GV and with GHR-exon 3 genotype on adult height.
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ABSTRACT: Despite extensive experience over the past 25 y in managing growth failure with growth hormone (rhGH), predicting treatment efficacy in individual children remains a challenge. In this paper, the authors present the methods that are currently available to clinicians for predicting the growth response, and other more sophisticated techniques which have the potential to pave the way for individualised therapy in the future.The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 11/2011; 79(2):229-37. DOI:10.1007/s12098-011-0611-x · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is great interindividual variability in the response to recombinant human (rh) GH therapy in patients with Turner syndrome (TS). Ascertaining genetic factors can improve the accuracy of growth response predictions. The objective of the study was to assess the individual and combined influence of GHR-exon 3 and -202 A/C IGFBP3 polymorphisms on the short- and long-term outcomes of rhGH therapy in patients with TS. GHR-exon 3 and -202 A/C IGFBP3 genotyping (rs2854744) was correlated with height data of 112 patients with TS who remained prepubertal during the first year of rhGH therapy and 65 patients who reached adult height after 5 ± 2.5 yr of rhGH treatment. First-year growth velocity and adult height were measured. Patients carrying at least one GHR-d3 or -202 A-IGFBP3 allele presented higher mean first-year growth velocity and achieved taller adult heights than those homozygous for GHR-fl or -202 C-IGFBP3 alleles, respectively. The combined analysis of GHR-exon 3 and -202 A/C IGFBP3 genotypes showed a clear nonadditive epistatic influence on adult height of patients with TS treated with rhGH (GHR-exon 3 alone, R² = 0.27; -202 A/C IGFBP3, R² = 0.24; the combined genotypes, R² = 0.37 at multiple linear regression). Together with clinical factors, these genotypes accounted for 61% of the variability in adult height of patients with TS after rhGH therapy. Homozygosity for the GHR-exon3 full-length allele and/or the -202C-IGFBP3 allele are associated with less favorable short- and long-term growth outcomes after rhGH treatment in patients with TS.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2012; 97(4):E671-7. DOI:10.1210/jc.2011-2521 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) is widely prescribed for children with short stature across a range of growth disorders. Recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) therapy is approved for severe primary IGF-I deficiency - a state of severe GH resistance. Evidence is increasing for an unacceptably high rate of poor or unsatisfactory response to growth-promoting therapy (i.e. not leading to significant catch up growth) in terms of change in height standard deviation score (SDS) and height velocity (HV) in many approved indications. Consequently, there is a need to define poor response and to prevent or correct it by optimizing treatment regimens within accepted guidelines. Recognition of a poor response is an indication for action by the treating physician, either to modify the therapy or to review the primary diagnosis leading either to discontinuation or change of therapy. This review discusses the optimal investigation of the child who is a candidate for GH or IGF-1 therapy so that a diagnosis-based choice of therapy and dosage can be made. The relevant parameters in the evaluation of growth response are described together with the definitions of poor response. Prevention of poor response is addressed by discussion of strategy for first-year management with GH and IGF-1. Adherence to therapy is reviewed as is the recommended action following the identification of the poorly responding patient. The awareness, recognition and management of poor response to growth-promoting therapy will lead to better patient care, greater cost-effectiveness and increased opportunities for clinical benefit.Clinical Endocrinology 04/2012; 77(2):169-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04420.x · 3.46 Impact Factor
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