The prognostic value of thrombelastography in identifying neurosurgical patients with worse prognosis.

Section for Transfusion Medicine, Capital Region Blood Bank, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, Denmark,
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis (Impact Factor: 1.38). 04/2011; 22(5):416-9. DOI: 10.1097/MBC.0b013e3283464f53
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coagulopathy in patients with intracranial haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with clinical deterioration and worse outcome. Whole blood viscoelastic haemostatic assays, like thrombelastography (TEG), might aid conventional coagulation assays in identification of patients with worse prognosis. We performed a review of patients (totalling 78 patients) with primary acute intracranial haemorrhage or isolated TBI admitted to a neurointensive care unit (NICU) for more than 24 h during a period of 9 months, who had TEG analysis performed at admission. Primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality, whereas decline in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at 24 h after admission or death due to cerebral incarceration were secondary outcomes. Patients were defined as hypocoaguable if TEG reaction time was more than 8 min, angle less than 55° and/or maximal amplitude less than 51 mm. Patients were defined hypocoaguable according to conventional coagulation assays if international normalized ratio was more than 1.3, platelet counts less than 100×10/l and/or activated partial thromboplastine time more than 35 s. Eight patients were hypocoaguable by TEG on admission to NICU and had higher 30-day mortality (63% vs. 16%, P=0.008), more often declined in GCS (57% vs. 16%, P=0.02) and expired due to cerebral incarceration (50% vs. 6%, P=0.02). Hypocoagulability by TEG, lower admission GCS and subarachnoid haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 30-day mortality [TEG: odds ratio (OR) 14.8 (2.2-100.1), P=0.006; GCS: OR 1.3 (1.1-1.5), P=0.006; subarachnoid haemorrhage: OR: 5.3 (1.3-22.3), P=0.02]. Only two patients were hypocoaguable by both conventional coagulation assays and TEG. The current data indicate that hypocoagulability by TEG at admission to NICU predicts worse prognosis. Low concordance with conventional coagulation assays indicates that TEG might be valuable in identifying patients with clinically relevant coagulopathy.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impaired haemostasis represents a major risk factor for bleeding complications in neurosurgical patients. Coagulopathy commonly occurs after (brain) trauma and major haemorrhage or originates from antithrombotic medication. Point of care (POC) devices for bedside assessment of haemostatic parameters are increasingly used in various medical specialties. Results can be instantly implemented into treatment modalities as results are delivered within a very short period. POC coagulation testing has also shown beneficial effects in the treatment of neurosurgical patients. Identification of hyperfibrinolysis is achieved through viscoelastic testing of haemostasis and bedside coagulometry hastens the management of anticoagulated patients in need of urgent neurosurgical procedures. Results of POC testing of platelet function have been correlated with patient outcomes after traumatic brain injury and furthermore, quantification of antiplatelet medication effects on platelet activity is made possible through the use of these devices. Further studies are needed to characterise the potential of POC testing of platelet function. Antiplatelet medication plays an important role in regard to haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risks. Therefore, POC testing of platelet activity may improve treatment modalities in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures as well as neurointerventional procedures (such as intracranial stent placement). In this article we summarise the available data of POC testing in neurosurgical patients and discuss the potential of these devices in this field. POC technologies have improved patient care in various medical fields and in our view it is likely that this will also apply to the field of neurosurgery.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 11/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2014.07.029 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Careful course observation is necessary for cases of mild to moderate traumatic brain injury even when disturbed consciousness is mild on admission. This is because delayed enlargement of hematoma and progression of cerebral swelling may occur and result in an emergency craniotomy. Here, we investigated coagulopathy and abnormal fibrinolysis as a predictive factor of “deterioration requiring surgery” in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury.Patients and methodsSixty-one patients with mild to moderate (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 9–15) traumatic brain injury were admitted between June 2009 and October 2010. There were 54 subjects in the study, excluding those treated with oral antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. Patients were classified into those with deterioration requiring surgery [op(+)] or those without deterioration requiring surgery [op(−)]. This was based on whether surgical treatment was performed for hematoma expansion, and exacerbated consciousness level within 3 days after admission. Age, GCS score on admission and blood test findings (platelet count, PT-INR, APTT, fibrinogen, FDP, and d-dimer) on admission were compared.ResultsThe op(+) and op(−) groups comprised 7 (13.0%) and 47 patients (87.0%), respectively. Platelet counts (24.8 vs 18.5 × 104/μl) were decreased, and PT-INR (1.0 vs 1.2) was higher in the op(+) group. Specially, APTT (28.6 vs 39.1 s), FDP (28.9 vs 112.9 μg/ml), and d-dimer (17.3 vs 69.6 μg/ml) values were significantly higher in the op(+) group.Conclusions Coagulopathy and abnormal fibrinolysis, which are measurable in routine medical practice, is associated with deterioration requiring surgery in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury, indicating that careful course observation is necessary.
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 10/2014; 127. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.10.007 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a hypercoagulable state, the mechanism and duration of which remain unclear. We sought to determine whether thromboelastography (TEG) analysis could identify the hypercoagulable state after TBI, as defined by elevations in maximal amplitude (MA), thrombus generation (TG), G value (G), and alpha angle (αA). Methods Patients with moderate–severe TBI, defined primarily as a GCS 48 h. Results Twenty five patients (80 % men) and 7 age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. Median age was 38 years (range 18–85). Early MA was [63.6 mm (60.5, 67.4)] versus late MA [69.9 mm (65.2,73.9); p = 0.02], early TG was [763.3 mm/min (712.8, 816.2)] versus late TG [835.9 mm/min (791.2,888.3); p = 0.02], and early G was [8.8 d/cm2 (7.7,10.4)] versus late G [11.6 d/cm2 (9.4,14.1); p = 0.02]. Study patients had higher MA (p = 0.02), TG (p = 0.03), and G (p = 0.02) values at T5 compared to controls. There was a linear increase per day of MA by 2.6 mm (p = 0.001), TG 31.9 mm/min (p ≤ 0.001), and G value by 1.3 d/cm2 (p ≤ 0.001) when clustered by pairs in regression analysis. Lower MA values trended toward home discharge (p = 0.08). Conclusion The data suggest a progressive and delayed hypercoagulable state observed days after initial TBI. The hypercoagulable state may reflect excess platelet activity.
    Neurocritical Care 08/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1007/s12028-014-0051-3 · 2.60 Impact Factor