Effects of adding butyric acid to PN on gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunoglobulin A levels.
ABSTRACT Parenteral nutrition (PN) causes intestinal mucosal atrophy, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) atrophy and dysfunction, leading to impaired mucosal immunity and increased susceptibility to infectious complications. Therefore, new PN formulations are needed to maintain mucosal immunity. Short-chain fatty acids have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa. We examined the effects of adding butyric acid to PN on GALT lymphocyte numbers, phenotypes, mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, and intestinal morphology in mice.
Male Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 103) were randomized to receive either standard PN (S-PN), butyric acid-supplemented PN (Bu-PN), or ad libitum chow (control) groups. The mice were fed these respective diets for 5 days. In experiment 1, cells were isolated from Peyer's patches (PPs) to determine lymphocyte numbers and phenotypes (αβTCR(+), γδTCR(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), B220(+) cells). IgA levels in small intestinal washings were also measured. In experiment 2, IgA levels in respiratory tract (bronchoalveolar and nasal) washings were measured. In experiment 3, small intestinal morphology was evaluated.
Lymphocyte yields from PPs and small intestinal, bronchoalveolar, and nasal washing IgA levels were all significantly lower in the S-PN group than in the control group. Bu-PN moderately, but significantly, restored PP lymphocyte numbers, as well as intestinal and bronchoalveolar IgA levels, as compared with S-PN. Villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine were significantly decreased in the S-PN group vs the control group, however Bu-PN restored intestinal morphology.
A new PN formula containing butyric acid is feasible and would ameliorate PN-induced impairment of mucosal immunity.