The variable course of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) warrants accurate tools for the prediction of progression. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are markers for the detection of early tubular damage caused by various renal conditions. We evaluated the prognostic value of these markers in patients with IgAN.
We included patients (n = 65, 72% male, age 43 ± 13 years) with biopsy-proven IgAN, who were evaluated for proteinuria. Urinary KIM-1 and NGAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analysed data using Cox regression for the outcome end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Median serum creatinine was 142 μmol/L and proteinuria 2.2 g/day. During follow-up (median 75 months), 23 patients (35%) developed ESRD. In patients with IgAN median urinary KIM-1 excretion was 1.7 ng/min and NGAL excretion was 47 ng/min, both significantly higher than in healthy controls. KIM-1 and NGAL were correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.40 and 0.34, respectively, P < 0.01) and each other (r = 0.53, P < 0.01) but not with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Interestingly, KIM-1 was not significantly correlated with the excretion of α(1)-microglobulin (α(1)m) and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)m), known markers of tubular injury. Univariate analysis showed that baseline serum creatinine and urinary excretion of total protein, α(1)m, β(2)m, immunoglobulin G, KIM-1 and NGAL were significantly associated with ESRD. By multivariate analysis, serum creatinine and KIM-1 excretion proved to be significant independent predictors of ESRD.
KIM-1 and NGAL excretion are increased in patients with IgAN and correlate with proteinuria but not with eGFR. Baseline serum creatinine and urinary KIM-1, but not proteinuria, are independent predictors of ESRD.
"Accordingly , increased NGAL excretion into the urine has been observed in a variety of renal diseases (e.g. polycystic kidney disease, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy), in which it closely reflects the magnitude of renal tubular injury   . In the setting of chronic heart failure (CHF), elevated levels of urinary NGAL paralleled by the increased excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 and N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase , sensitive and specific markers of tubular damage, have been observed in several studies    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Due to the lack of nephrotoxic activity, proliferation signal inhibitors (PSI) such as everolimus are recommended for immunosuppression after heart transplantation, but the assessment of renal function in patients receiving PSI has led to conflicting results. We examined renal integrity and function using neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and conventional markers [plasma creatinine, cystatin C, urine albumin, α1-microglobulin (α1M)] in heart transplant patients, who underwent conversion to everolimus due to allograft vasculopathy, graft rejection episodes, or renal function deterioration, and in patients maintained on calcineurin inhibitors (CNI).
This cross-sectional study included 121 consecutive heart transplant recipients: 44 patients received CNI-free immunosuppressive therapy with everolimus and 77 patients received CNI. Renal parameters were determined in plasma and urine samples using standard enzymatic or immunochemical methods.
Heart transplant recipients receiving everolimus therapy had significantly lower NGAL concentrations in plasma [median (95% CI): 128 (97-176)ng/mL vs. 252 (224-283)ng/mL, p<0.001] and urine [median (95% CI): 6.4 (4.5-7.6)ng/g vs. 15.7 (10.2-25.9)ng/g creatinine, p<0.001]. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between everolimus- and CNI-treated groups with regard to creatinine and cystatin C, as well as urine albumin and α1M levels. Significant correlations were noted between plasma NGAL and creatinine (r=0.42, p<0.001), cystatin C (r=0.44, p<0.001), N-terminal brain natriuretic propeptide (r=0.31, p<0.01) and indicators of chronic inflammation [lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), r=0.31, p<0.01] and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, r=0.22, p<0.05), and between urinary NGAL and α1M (r=0.21, p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that cystatin C and Lp-PLA2 were the best predictors of plasma NGAL.
The present study documents reduced plasma and urinary NGAL levels in the absence of differences in conventional renal parameters in patients on CNI-free immunosuppressive therapy with everolimus. These results support favorable effects of everolimus on renal integrity in heart transplant recipients.
Journal of Cardiology 01/2015; 66(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.12.010 · 2.78 Impact Factor
"Subsequent studies focusing on patients with various stages of IgAN got different results [16,18]. In the current study, we found no correlation between urinary KIM-1 and proteinuria, as well as between urinary KIM-1 and renal function for IgAN patients with normotension, normal renal function and mild proteinuria, and the proportion of patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 was lower than previous studies [16,18]. We speculated that the heterogeneity of the selected patients might contribute to the differences of the results. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) may progress to renal failure for some patients without any clinical risk factors and it is not unusual to find severe pathologic damage in clinically mild IgAN. We therefore investigated whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was related to pathologic involvement in clinically mild IgAN.
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine of 51 IgAN patients with normotension, normal renal function and proteinuria < 1.0 g/24 h were tested. Relationships between urinary KIM-1 and pathologic features were analyzed.
Eighteen of the 51 patients had elevated urinary KIM-1. The tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis was more severe in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (T0/T1/T2, 13/5/0 vs. 33/0/0, P = 0.004). Proportion of glomeruli containing cresecents was higher in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (50% vs. 18%, P = 0.026). Urinary KIM-1 correlated with the proportion of total crescents (R = 0.303, p = 0.031) and fibrous crescents (R = 0.456, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with the proportion of cellular crescents or fibrocellular crescents. Although the proportion of vascular lesions was higher in patients with elevated urinary KIM-1 (44.4%) than that in patients with normal urinary KIM-1 (18.1%), the difference was not significant (p = 0.057). There was no difference of the response to treatment between patients with and without elevated urinary KIM-1 during a short-term follow-up.
Urinary KIM-1 is a reflection of tubularinstitial injury. For patients with clinically mild IgAN, high urinary KIM-1 is related to relatively severe pathologic involvement on renal biopsy.
"Recent studies have shown that in patients with IgAN, urinary KIM-1 is closely associated with disease severity and is an independent predictor of ESRD [12,13]. However, it is still unclear whether urinary KIM-1 levels are affected by treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a biomarker useful for detecting early tubular damage and has been recently reported as a useful marker for evaluating kidney injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We therefore investigated whether treatment decreases urinary KIM-1 excretion in IgAN.
We prospectively enrolled 37 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN. Urinary KIM-1 was assessed before and after treatment, which included low salt diet, blood pressure control, pharmacotherapy with angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and immunosuppressive agents as necessary. The median treatment duration was 24 months.
Urinary KIM-1/creatinine (Cr) was significantly decreased in patients with IgAN after treatment compared to baseline (P < 0.0001, 1.16 [0.51-1.83] vs 0.26 [0.12-0.65] ng/mg). There was a decrease in the amount of proteinuria after treatment, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.052, 748.1 [405-1569.7] vs 569.2 [252.2-1114] g/d). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not change with treatment (P = 0.599, 79.28 +/- 30.56 vs 80.98 +/- 32.37 ml/min/1.73 m2). Urinary KIM-1 was not correlated with proteinuria baseline or follow up (pre-: R = - 0.100, P = 0.577, post-: R = 0.001, P = 0.993). In patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1, both urinary KIM-1 level and proteinuria were significantly decreased following treatment.
Treatment decreases urinary KIM-1/Cr in patients with IgAN. It also reduces proteinuria in patients with higher baseline urinary KIM-1. These results suggest a potential role for urinary KIM-1 as a biomarker for predicting treatment response in IgAN, however, further study is needed to verify this.
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