Kamel Boulos, M.N., et al.: How smartphones are changing the face of mobile and participatory healthcare: an overview, with example from eCAALYX. Biomedical Engineering Online 10, 24

Faculty of Health, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK.
BioMedical Engineering OnLine (Impact Factor: 1.43). 04/2011; 10(1):24. DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-10-24
Source: PubMed


The latest generation of smartphones are increasingly viewed as handheld computers rather than as phones, due to their powerful on-board computing capability, capacious memories, large screens and open operating systems that encourage application development. This paper provides a brief state-of-the-art overview of health and healthcare smartphone apps (applications) on the market today, including emerging trends and market uptake. Platforms available today include Android, Apple iOS, RIM BlackBerry, Symbian, and Windows (Windows Mobile 6.x and the emerging Windows Phone 7 platform). The paper covers apps targeting both laypersons/patients and healthcare professionals in various scenarios, e.g., health, fitness and lifestyle education and management apps; ambient assisted living apps; continuing professional education tools; and apps for public health surveillance. Among the surveyed apps are those assisting in chronic disease management, whether as standalone apps or part of a BAN (Body Area Network) and remote server configuration. We describe in detail the development of a smartphone app within eCAALYX (Enhanced Complete Ambient Assisted Living Experiment, 2009-2012), an EU-funded project for older people with multiple chronic conditions. The eCAALYX Android smartphone app receives input from a BAN (a patient-wearable smart garment with wireless health sensors) and the GPS (Global Positioning System) location sensor in the smartphone, and communicates over the Internet with a remote server accessible by healthcare professionals who are in charge of the remote monitoring and management of the older patient with multiple chronic conditions. Finally, we briefly discuss barriers to adoption of health and healthcare smartphone apps (e.g., cost, network bandwidth and battery power efficiency, usability, privacy issues, etc.), as well as some workarounds to mitigate those barriers.

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    • "us studies conducted in the United States ( Meischke et al . , 2010 ; Bradley et al . , 2011 ; Sasson et al . , 2015 ) . One possible intervention that can be considered in Singapore in order to overcome the language barriers and lack of familiarity with the local geography by non - residents may be the use of smartphone based geo - locator apps ( Boulos et al . , 2011 ) . We also observed that weather has a significant effect , possibly due to the fact that vehicles are more likely to travel at slower speeds under wet conditions than on dry roads due to safety concerns . In contrast to results from existing studies which found the effect of"
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    • "Kuss and Griffiths (2011) reported that excessive smartphone use can decrease real-life social interaction, lower academic performance, and negatively affect relationships. Moreover, excessive smartphone use can give rise to adverse effects similar to those caused by problematic Internet use, including comorbid psychiatric disorders and the impairment of social and emotional functioning due to the portability factor that allows for real-time and personalized Internet services anywhere (Boulos et al., 2011; Ha et al., 2006; Shapira et al., 2003). Excessive smartphone use can also disrupt physical activity (Lepp, Barkley, Sanders, Rebold & Gates, 2013). "
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    • "low-profile external sensors; Patel et al 2012) that interface directly with the smartphone already in a patient's pocket (e.g. Boulos et al 2011, Kay 2011, Free et al 2013) comes important considerations about system resources (e.g. Tarkoma et al 2014). "
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