Unemployment and substance use: A review of the Literature (1990-2010)
ABSTRACT The current article summarizes the results of a comprehensive review of the international research published between 1990 and 2010. The research was focused on the prevalence of substance use/disorders among the unemployed and employed, the impact of substance abuse on unemployment and vice versa, the effect of unemployment on alcohol/ drug addiction treatment and smoking cessation, and the relationship between business cycle, unemployment rate and substance use. Over hundred-thirty relevant studies were identified investigating these issues. The main results are as follows: (1) Risky alcohol consumption (associated with hazardous, binge, and heavy drinking) is more prevalent among the unemployed. They are also more likely to be smokers, to use illicit and prescription drugs, and to have alcohol and drug disorders (abuse, dependence). (2) Problematic substance use increases the likelihood of unemployment and decreases the chance of finding and holding down a job. (3) Unemployment is a significant risk factor for substance use and the subsequent development of substance use disorders. However, the current research provides only limited information about which individuals are more likely to be affected. (4) Unemployment increases the risk of relapse after alcohol and drug addiction treatment. (5) The exact nature of the relationship between unemployment and the probability of smoking cessation remains unclear due to the mixed results observed in the literature review. (6) Drinking and smoking patterns appear to be procyclical. We see a decrease in both when the economy declines and the unemployment rate increases. In contrast, a countercyclical trend was observed amongst adolescent drug users. However, these studies do not provide any convincing or additional information about substance use amongst the unemployed. This paper discusses the merits, limitations and problems of the research, proposes numerous future research questions, and outlines important implications for policy makers and practitioners, especially with regard to prevention and vocational promotion and rehabilitation.
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- "Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/health/ ling it . Many persons who suffer from mental illness also have substance abuse problems, and many of those with substance abuse problems suffer from severe mental health difficulties  . "
ABSTRACT: Background: Participating in working life is im- portant for most peoples’ economy, self-confi- dence, independence, social life, and feeling of belonging. Persons with co-occurring severe mental health difficulties and substance use problems have challenges in entering working life. Objective: The aim of the study was to ex- plore the importance of work and activity for the recovery of persons with co-occurring severe mental health difficulties and substance use problems and to determine the significant ele- ments that aid them in getting into work and/or meaningful activities. Methods: A professional development program was conducted to explore how following-up on these persons could lead to participation in working life. The data were col- lected through qualitative interviews with 24 participants, and with 25 of those carrying out the follow-up. Results: The participants de-scribed the benefit from the follow-up as well. They expressed enthusiasm for work and voca- tional training, although they all did not obtain work. Many had a better life, with more daily structure and less substance abuse. The per- sonal encounter between the helper and the participant was ascribed crucial importance— being respected and valued, being relied on, and being able to be honest were considered sig- nificant. Conclusions: The participants valued work and regular activities, a more structured life, decreased drug abuse, and altogether a better life. The helpers’ respect, recognition and their ability to see dignity through wretchedness and broken agreements were important. The participants emphasized the importance of get- ting help for different problems from different helpers at the same time, and the providers’ in- terdisciplinary collaboration in teams was es-sential. It seems that the supported employ- ment philosophy on speedy job seeking ought to be adapted to this target group and that prior social training may be necessary.Health 01/2013; 5(No.6A2):78-86. DOI:10.4236/health.2013.56A2012 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Grundlagen Während der Zusammenhang zwischen den Arbeitslosenquoten und den nationalen Suizidraten durch verschiedene Studien belegt ist, gibt es nur wenige Untersuchungen über die Beziehung zwischen Arbeitslosigkeit und Homizidraten. Im Besonderen ist nicht bekannt, ob Selbst- und Fremdtötung durch dieselben sozioökonomischen Faktoren bedingt sind. Methodik Mittels statistischer Regressionsverfahren wurde der Einfluss der Arbeitslosenquote, des Prokopfeinkommens und des jährlichen Alkoholkonsums auf die Suizid- und Homizidraten der 27 EU-Staaten untersucht. Ergebnisse Es fand sich eine positive Korrelation zwischen Suizid- und Homizidraten. Bei Männern ist Arbeitslosigkeit ein starker Prädiktor nicht nur für Selbst- sondern auch für Fremdtötung Die Suizidraten der Männer werden auch durch die jährliche Menge an konsumiertem Alkohol beeinflusst. Die Suizidraten der Frauen korrelieren hingegen weder mit den sozioökonomischen Variablen noch mit dem Alkoholkonsum. Schlussfolgerungen Arbeitslosigkeit scheint eine stärkere Erschütterung der männlichen als der weiblichen Identitätsentwürfe zu bewirken, da erstere offenbar noch immer in hohem Maße von vorgegebenen sozialen Rollen abhängig ist, in diesem Fall von der Fähigkeit, durch Arbeit sich selbst und eine Familie zu ernähren.Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation: Organ der Gesellschaft Österreichischer Nervenärzte und Psychiater 09/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.1007/s40211-012-0051-5 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Consumption of illegal drugs is a public health problem in Mexico, and the prison population is a vulnerable group with higher rates of prevalence than in the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the main socioeconomic variables associated with drug consumption in the prison population. Utilizing data from the Second Incarcerated Population Survey carried out by the Centre of Research and Teaching of Economics (CIDE) in Mexico, a logistic model in two stages was developed. The first stage analyzed the determinants of habitual drug consumption by prisoners (prior to admittance into prisons), while the second stage of the model addressed drug consumption within prisons. Prevalence of drug consumption previous to incarceration was 28.5%, although once people were imprisoned this figure dropped to 7.4%. The characteristics that most heavily influenced against the possibility of habitual drug consumption prior to admittance to prison were: preparatory school or higher, being employed and having children; while the variables associated negatively were: male gender, childhood home shared with adults who consumed illegal drugs; abandoning childhood home; and having previous prison sentences. Once in prison, the negative conditions in there are associated with drug consumption. Work and study during incarceration, in addition to being instruments for rehabilitation, seem to exert an important positive association against drug consumption. However, this correlation seems to be minimized in the face of negative conditions of the penal institution; thus, public policies are necessary to improve the prisoner's environment.BMC Public Health 01/2012; 12:33. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-33 · 2.32 Impact Factor