Unintended pregnancy: worldwide levels, trends, and outcomes.
ABSTRACT Unintended pregnancy can carry serious consequences for women and their families. We estimate the incidence of pregnancy by intention status and outcome at worldwide, regional, and subregional levels for 2008, and we assess recent trends since 1995. Numbers of births are based on United Nations estimates. Induced abortions are estimated by projecting from recent trends. A model-based approach is used to estimate miscarriages. The planning status of births is estimated using nationally representative and small-scale surveys of 80 countries. Of the 208 million pregnancies that occurred in 2008, we estimate that 41 percent were unintended. The unintended pregnancy rate fell by 29 percent in developed regions and by 20 percent in developing regions. The highest unintended pregnancy rates were found for Eastern and Middle Africa and the lowest for Southern and Western Europe and Eastern Asia. North America is the only region in which overall and unintended pregnancy rates have not declined. We conclude with a brief discussion of global and regional program and policy implications.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of unplanned pregnancies among severely obese women with those of planned pregnancies. Methods: This prospective cohort study included severely obese women (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥40.0 kg/m(2)) who delivered a baby weighing ≥500 g over 5 years 2009-2013 in a large university hospital. Maternal weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated at the first prenatal visit. Results: Of the 650 women, the mean BMI was 43.8 kg/m(2), mean age was 31.6 years, and 30.0% (n = 195) were nulliparous. Prenatal complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), hypertensive and thromboembolic disorders occurred in 56.6% (n = 368). Compared with planned pregnancies (58.2%, n = 378), those that were unplanned (41.8%, n = 272) were associated with increased prepregnancy risk factors including essential hypertension (4.0% versus 1.6%, p = 0.03) and depression (6.6% versus 3.2%, p = 0.03). Unplanned pregnancy was associated with a higher macrosomia rate (birthweight > 4.5 kg) compared with planned pregnancies (p = 0.03). This was not explained by a higher GDM rate in unplanned pregnancies. Compared with planned pregnancies, unplanned pregnancies were not associated with increased adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Conclusion: Despite increased prepregnancy risk factors, in severely obese women, unplanned pregnancies were not associated with increased prenatal complications or adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with planned pregnancies.
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ABSTRACT: Facial coverings (e.g., balaclavas, niqabs, medical/surgical masks, respirators, etc.), that impose low levels of airflow resistive loads, are worn by millions of pregnant women worldwide, but little data exist addressing their impact on pregnancy-associated cardiovascular and pulmonary responses. 16 pregnant and 16 non-pregnant women were monitored physiologically (heart rate, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, total peripheral resistance, stroke volume, cardiac output, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, fetal heart rate) and subjectively (exertion) for 1 h of mixed sedentary postural activity (sitting, standing) and moderate exercise (bicycle ergometer) with and without wearing N95 filtering facepiece respirators with filter resistive loads of 94.1 Pa (9.6 mm H2O) - 119.6 Pa (12.2 mm H2O) pressure. The external airflow resistive loads were associated with increases in diastolic pressure (p = 0.004), mean arterial pressure (p = 0.01), and subjective exertion score (p < 0.001) of all study subjects. No significant differences were noted with the external resistive loads between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups for any cardiovascular, pulmonary and subjective variable over 1 h. Low external airflow resistive loads, during combined sedentary postural activity and moderate exercise over 1 h, were associated with increases in the diastolic and mean arterial pressures of all study subjects, but pregnancy itself was not associated with any significant differences in physiologic or subjective responses to the external airway resistive loads utilized in the study.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12884-015-0474-7 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complications due to unsafe abortion cause high maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. This study describes post-abortion complication severity and associated factors in Kenya. A nationally representative sample of 326 health facilities was included in the survey. All regional and national referral hospitals and a random sample of lower level facilities were selected. Data were collected from 2,625 women presenting with abortion complications. A complication severity indicator was developed as the main outcome variable for this paper and described by women's socio-demographic characteristics and other variables. Ordered logistic regression models were used for multivariable analyses. Over three quarters of abortions clients presented with moderate or severe complications. About 65 % of abortion complications were managed by manual or electronic vacuum aspiration, 8% by dilation and curettage, 8% misoprostol and 19% by forceps and fingers. The odds of having moderate or severe complications for mistimed pregnancies were 43% higher than for wanted pregnancies (OR, 1.43; CI 1.01-2.03). For those who never wanted any more children the odds for having a severe complication was 2 times (CI 1.36-3.01) higher compared to those who wanted the pregnancy then. Women who reported inducing the abortion had 2.4 times higher odds of having a severe complication compared to those who reported that it was spontaneous (OR, 2.39; CI 1.72-3.34). Women who had a delay of more than 6 hours to get to a health facility had at least 2 times higher odds of having a moderate/severe complication compared to those who sought care within 6 hours from onset of complications. A delay of 7-48 hours was associated with OR, 2.12 (CI 1.42-3.17); a delay of 3-7 days OR, 2.01 (CI 1.34-2.99) and a delay of more than 7 days, OR 2.35 (CI 1.45-3.79). Moderate and severe post-abortion complications are common in Kenya and a sizeable proportion of these are not properly managed. Factors such as delay in seeking care, interference with pregnancy, and unwanted pregnancies are important determinants of complication severity and fortunately these are amenable to targeted interventions.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12884-015-0459-6 · 2.15 Impact Factor