Unintended Pregnancy: Worldwide Levels, Trends, and Outcomes
ABSTRACT Unintended pregnancy can carry serious consequences for women and their families. We estimate the incidence of pregnancy by intention status and outcome at worldwide, regional, and subregional levels for 2008, and we assess recent trends since 1995. Numbers of births are based on United Nations estimates. Induced abortions are estimated by projecting from recent trends. A model-based approach is used to estimate miscarriages. The planning status of births is estimated using nationally representative and small-scale surveys of 80 countries. Of the 208 million pregnancies that occurred in 2008, we estimate that 41 percent were unintended. The unintended pregnancy rate fell by 29 percent in developed regions and by 20 percent in developing regions. The highest unintended pregnancy rates were found for Eastern and Middle Africa and the lowest for Southern and Western Europe and Eastern Asia. North America is the only region in which overall and unintended pregnancy rates have not declined. We conclude with a brief discussion of global and regional program and policy implications.
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ABSTRACT: This paper assesses the factors influencing mistimed and unwanted pregnancies in Nepal separately using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Women who had given birth within the five years before the survey were interviewed about the intendedness of their last pregnancy. The data were analysed with a chi-squared test, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the total 5391 participants, 11.29% and 13.13% reported their last pregnancy as mistimed and unwanted respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that women from the hill region were more likely to report mistimed pregnancy, while women from the Western and Far-Western development regions were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Education status was positively correlated with the reporting of mistimed pregnancy. Women involved in agriculture, with full autonomy on household decision, with some exposure to mass media, belonging to higher age group and having third or higher parity were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Similarly, women from the Western development region had relatively higher odds of reporting unwanted pregnancy. Women with husbands involved in a paid job had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Women's autonomy was also positively correlated with unwanted pregnancy. Women with the intention to use contraceptive had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Interventions targeting the factors identified by this study could be useful in reduction of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among Nepali women.Journal of Biosocial Science 05/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0021932015000073 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sex ratios in India have become increasingly imbalanced over the past decades. We hypothesize that when sex ratios become very uneven, the shortage of girls will increase girls' future value, leading sex ratios to self-correct. Using data on children under 5 from the last four Indian censuses, we examine the relationship between the sex ratio at one point in time and the change in sex ratio over the next 10 years by district. Fixed-effects models show that when accounting for unobserved district-level characteristics-including total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, percentage literate, percentage rural, percentage scheduled caste, percentage scheduled tribe, and a time trend variable-sex ratios are significantly negatively correlated with the change in sex ratio in the successive 10-year period. This suggests that self-corrective forces are at work on imbalanced sex ratios in India.Demography 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13524-014-0356-z · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To review family planning in a cohort of women who delivered a second child within 3 years of their first. Methods A longitudinal, observational study included women aged at least 18 years who had delivered a singleton weighing at least 500 g in 2009 after their first pregnancy at a hospital in Dublin, Ireland, and who returned to the hospital for prenatal care for a second pregnancy before January 2012. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of maternal characteristics on pregnancy intention. Results Of 3284 primigravidas who delivered in 2009, 1220 (37.1%) returned with a second pregnancy. The second pregnancy was unplanned in 248 (20.3%) women, and both pregnancies were unplanned in 124 (10.2%). The second pregnancy was more likely to be unplanned in women whose first pregnancy was also unplanned than in those whose first was planned (adjusted odds ratio 6.5; 95% confidence interval 4.6–8.4; P < 0.001). Among the 99 women with recurrent unplanned pregnancy who had not been using contraception before the first pregnancy, 85 (85.9%) were also not using contraception before the second. Conclusion Women whose first pregnancy is unplanned are at increased risk of subsequent unplanned pregnancies. Postnatal contraceptive advice in this high-risk group should be prioritized.International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 10/2014; 128(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.08.012 · 1.56 Impact Factor