From VACTERL-H to heterotaxy: variable expressivity of ZIC3-related disorders.
ABSTRACT The ZIC3 gene encodes a zinc finger protein which functions as a transcription factor in early stages of left-right body axis formation. Mutations in this X-linked gene cause a variety of clinical manifestations including heterotaxy, complex or isolated heart defect as well as other midline urogenital and hindgut malformations. We report a four generation family with X-linked heterotaxy associated with a deletion of the ZIC3 gene at Xq26.3. The index fetus of our proband showed classical features of heterotaxy while her maternal uncle and one brother had imperforate anus and her other brother had features suggestive of VACTERL-H without heterotaxy. A 1.4 Mb deletion in Xq26.3 including the ZIC3 gene was found in the fetus. Six females in the family were found to be asymptomatic carriers. Our report indicates that some of the cases with VACTERL-H syndrome may be caused by a mutation or deletion of the ZIC3 gene.
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ABSTRACT: We present a case of VACTERL association with hydrocephalus (VACTERL-H) in a fetus conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) and review the literature. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple fetal anomalies at 22 weeks of gestation. She and her husband were non-consanguineous and there was no family history of congenital malformations. This was her second pregnancy conceived via IVF-ET. Two embryos had been implanted and only one survived. She underwent chorionic villus sampling at 17 weeks of gestation because of oligohydramnios and advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY, and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no genomic imbalance. Prenatal ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a singleton with fetal biometry equivalent to 18 weeks, ventriculomegaly, a small cerebellum, and a ventricular septal defect. Level II ultrasound showed a single umbilical artery, scoliosis, a right club hand, radial aplasia, and renal agenesis. The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy at 22 weeks of gestation, and a fetus was delivered with bilateral arthrogryposis, right radial aplasia, a club hand and thumb aplasia, hypoplasia of the left thumb, scoliosis, and an imperforate anus. The clinical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of VACTERL-H. Molecular analysis of PTEN, FANCB, and HOXD13 genes revealed no mutation. Prenatal diagnosis of radial ray defects in fetuses conceived by assisted reproductive technology should include a differential diagnosis of VACTERL association with anorectal malformation. VACTERL-H may occur in pregnancy after IVF-ET.Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology 12/2013; 52(4):575-9.
- The Journal of pediatrics 12/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to identify genetic causes of VACTERL association (V vertebral defects, A anorectal malformations, C cardiac defects, T tracheoesofageal fistula, E esophageal atresia, R renal anomalies, L limb deformities), we have collected DNA samples from 20 patients diagnosed with VACTERL or with a VACTERL-like phenotype as well as samples from 19 aborted fetal cases with VACTERL. To investigate the importance of gene dose alterations in the genetic etiology of VACTERL association we have performed a systematic analysis of this cohort using a 180K array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) platform. In addition, to further clarify the significance of PCSK5, HOXD13 and CHD7 genes in the VACTERL phenotype, mutation screening has been performed. We identified pathogenic gene dose imbalances in two fetal cases; a hemizygous deletion of the FANCB gene and a (9;18)(p24;q12) unbalanced translocation. In addition, one pathogenic mutation in CHD7 was detected, while no apparent disease-causing mutations were found in HOXD13 or PCSK5. Our study shows that although large gene dose alterations do not seem to be a common cause in VACTERL association, array-CGH is still important in clinical diagnostics to identify disease cause in individual cases.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85313. · 3.73 Impact Factor