Mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive effects of black raspberries at a late stage of rat esophageal carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT The present study used a postinitiation protocol to investigate molecular mechanisms by which black raspberries (BRBs) influence the late stages of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in rats. F344 rats were injected with NMBA and then fed either control diet or a diet containing 5% BRB powder. Control rats were injected with DMSO/water (20:80), the vehicle for NMBA. Esophagi from control, NMBA- and NMBA + BRB-treated rats were collected at 35 wk for histopathological, molecular, and immunohistochemical analyses. Treatment with 5% BRBs reduced the number of dysplastic lesions and the number and size of esophageal papillomas in NMBA-treated rats. When compared to esophagi from control rats, NMBA treatment led to the differential expression of 4807 genes in preneoplastic esophagus (PE) and 17 846 genes in esophageal papillomas. Dietary BRBs modulated 626 of the 4807 differentially expressed genes in PE and 625 of the 17 846 differentially expressed genes in esophageal papillomas towards normal levels of expression. In both PE and in papillomas, BRBs modulated the mRNA expression of genes associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell proliferation and death, and inflammation. In these same tissues, BRBs modulated the expression of proteins associated with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases involved in tissue invasion and metastasis, and proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion, were also modulated by BRBs. This is the first report of the effects of berries on the expression of genes associated with the late stages of rat esophageal carcinogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: The strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa, Duch.) represents a relevant source of micronutrients, such as minerals, vitamin C, folate and phenolic substances, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of the fruit. All these compounds are essential for health and, in particular, strawberry phenolics are best known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, and possess directly and indirectly antimicrobial, anti-allergy and anti-hypertensive properties, as well as the capacity to inhibit the activities of some physiological enzymes and receptor properties. The main objective of this article is to review and update the current knowledge on the potential impact of the strawberry on human health, with particular attention on compounds and their possible mechanisms of action.Natural product research 07/2012; 27(4-5). DOI:10.1080/14786419.2012.706294 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Strawberries are a common and important fruit in the Mediterranean diet because of their high content of essential nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals, which seem to have relevant biological activity in human health. Among these phytochemicals, anthocyanin and ellagitannins are the major antioxidant compounds. Although individual phytochemical constituents of strawberries have been studied for their biological activities, human intervention studies using whole fruits are still lacking. Here, the nutritional contribution and phytochemical composition of the strawberry are reviewed, as is the role played by the maturity, genotype, and storage effects on this fruit. Specific attention is focused on fruit absorption, metabolism, and the possible beneficial biological activity on human health.Nutrition 01/2012; 28(1):9-19. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2011.08.009 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products.Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 12/2014; 51(12). DOI:10.1007/s13197-012-0861-2 · 2.02 Impact Factor