This work seeks to extend the utility of microfluidics to conventional blood sampling aperati. Daily medical care of hospitalized patients demands repeated needle punctures or interfacing with a catheter to collect blood samples. Large, research grade systems can autonomously sample blood from laboratory animals; however, a disposable aperatus that can be used to repeatedly sample blood from hospitalized patients does not exist. We have designed, fabricated and demonstrated a 3-layered rigid polymer microfluidic blood sampling device with integrated polymer pinch valves for placement in-line between a patient and a saline infusion system. The blood sampler we designed seeks to mitigate sample cross contamination, reduce risks of microbial contamination associated with invasive blood sampling and improve technical ease of blood sampling. Clinical laboratory tests and microfluidic devices for rapid point-of-care-testing (POCT) of patient samples require human sampling procedures for collection of a patient sample at defined time points. The microfluidic sampling device is designed ultimately to be backwards compatible with existing clinical saline infusion protocols and function as a universal front-end blood sampling unit for the variety of microfluidic lab chips and POCT devices.
"Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary field that brings together electronics (Cheng and Wu 2012), physics (Squires and Quake 2005), biotechnology (Barry and Ivanov 2004), optics (Psaltis et al. 2006), material science and chemistry (Marre et al. 2012). Typical biomedical applications of microfluidics are focused on continuous flow devices for sampling (Browne and Ahn 2011), detection and counting (Zhe et al. 2007) sensing (Zaytseva et al. 2005) of protein biomarkers, microarray biochips for magnetophoretic DNA extraction (Karle et al. 2010) and electrophoretic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification (Zhang et al. 2006). Other applications of microfluidics include optofluidic systems for tunable microlens arrays (Zappe and Shaik 2005), microfluidic fuel cells (Choban et al. 2004), etc. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) based microfluidic devices are being developed for point-of-care biomedical and environmental sensing to enable personalized health care. This article reviews the prospects of LTCC technology for microfluidic device development and its advantages and limitations in processing capabilities compared to silicon, glass and polymer processing. The current state of the art in LTCC-based processing techniques for fabrication of microfluidic components such as microchannels, chambers, microelectrodes and valves is presented. LTCC-based biosensing applications are discussed under the classification of (a) microreactors, (b) whole cell-based and (c) protein biosensors. Biocompatibility of LTCC pertaining to the development of biosensors and whole cell sensors is also discussed. Other significant applications of LTCC microfluidic systems for detection of environmental contaminants and toxins are also presented. Technological constraints and advantages of LTCC-based microfluidic system are elucidated in the conclusion. The LTCC-based microfluidic devices provide a viable platform for the development of point-of-care diagnostic systems for biosensing and environmental sensing applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in patients with contact lens-related dry eye (CLDE).
This was a 4-week, single-center, open-label clinical trial in patients diagnosed with CLDE using the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ). Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment groups: azithromycin ophthalmic solution administered bid on days 1 and 2 and on days 3 to 29±1 or Visine for Contacts rewetting drops administered qid on days 1 to 29±1. The patient diaries were used daily to collect data on comfortable and total contact lens wear time and ocular dryness throughout the treatment period. Tear osmolarity, fluorescein corneal staining, and visual acuity were also assessed during clinic visits.
Fifty patients were enrolled, and 44 completed the study. One patient discontinued in the azithromycin group, and five patients discontinued in the rewetting drops group because of adverse events. A statistically significant increase in mean comfortable contact lens wear time from baseline was observed for the subjects treated with azithromycin ophthalmic solution as compared with the subjects treated with rewetting drops at week 4 (P=0.004; primary endpoint), in addition to weeks 2 and 3. The improvement in the mean comfortable wear time for the patients in the azithromycin treatment group exceeded 2 hrs throughout the treatment period (weeks 1-4). No significant differences were observed between the groups for total wear time, low contrast visual acuity, or tear osmolarity. Subject-rated ocular dryness (PM time assessments) was significantly improved from baseline in the subjects treated with azithromycin ophthalmic solution as compared with those treated with rewetting drops at weeks 2 and 3 endpoints (P=0.015 for each week). Additionally, a statistical difference was observed in favor of the azithromycin treatment group at week 2 for the subjects reclassifying as nondry eye as determined by the CLDEQ (P=0.05).
Treatment with topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and resulted in a significant improvement in comfortable contact lens wear time in the patients with CLDE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new micro blood sampling system has been designed, fabricated, and characterized to reduce iatrogenic blood loss from the catheterized neonates and pediatrics in intensive care unit by providing micro-volume of blood to analytical biomedical microdevices which can do point-of-care testing for their critical care. The system can not only save enormous iatrogenic blood loss through 1 to 10 μL of blood sampling and re-infusion of 1 to 5 mL of discard blood but also reduce the infection risk through the closed structure while satisfying the key criteria of the blood sampler. The sampled blood preserved its quality without rupturing of red blood cells verified by blood potassium concentrations of 3.86 ± 0.07 mM on the sampled blood which is similar to 3.81 ± 0.04 mM measured from the blood which did not go through the system. The sampling volume among the sampling channels showed consistency with the relative standard deviation of 1.41 %. In addition to the micro blood sampling capability, the sampling system showed negligible sample cross-contamination. The analyte-free samples collected after aspirating 7,500 times higher signal sample showed the same output signal as blank. The system was also demonstrated not to cause air-embolism by having no bubble generation during flushing procedure and the system was verified as leak-free since there was no fluid leakage under 30 times higher pressure than central venous pressure for 24 h.
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