A Systematic Review of Medical Treatments for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
ABSTRACT As many as 1 in every 110 children in the United States has an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many medical treatments for ASDs have been proposed and studied, but there is currently no consensus regarding which interventions are most effective.
To systematically review evidence regarding medical treatments for children aged 12 years and younger with ASDs.
We searched the Medline, PsycInfo, and ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) databases from 2000 to May 2010, regulatory data for approved medications, and reference lists of included articles. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Studies of secretin were not included in this review. Two reviewers independently extracted data regarding participant and intervention characteristics, assessment techniques, and outcomes and assigned overall quality and strength-of-evidence ratings on the basis of predetermined criteria.
Evidence supports the benefit of risperidone and aripiprazole for challenging and repetitive behaviors in children with ASDs. Evidence also supports significant adverse effects of these medications. Insufficient strength of evidence is present to evaluate the benefits or adverse effects for any other medical treatments for ASDs, including serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and stimulant medications.
Although many children with ASDs are currently treated with medical interventions, strikingly little evidence exists to support benefit for most treatments. Risperidone and aripiprazole have shown benefit for challenging and repetitive behaviors, but associated adverse effects limit their use to patients with severe impairment or risk of injury.
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ABSTRACT: There is significant variation in prescriptions among countries in clinical practice for the treatment of comorbidities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been suggested that many people with mental health disorders in low-/middle-income countries do not receive adequate treatment. Hence, this study investigated psychopharmacological treatment patterns for ASD comorbidities in 30 countries and the association between country's income and prescription rates.The IMS Prescribing Insights database was used to investigate prescription patterns for ASD comorbidity treatment from 2007 to 2012. Data were obtained from 30 countries in continents of Europe, Asia, Oceania, Central America, South America, and Africa. The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was used as a proxy for each country's income. Spearman correlation was used to examine the association between prescription rate and GDP per capita.The highest prescription rates were found in Western Europe (3.89–36.36/10,000) while the lowest prescription rates were found in Asian countries, such as Turkey, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan (0.04–0.82/10,000). The most commonly prescribed drug for ASD comorbidity treatment in most of the countries was risperidone, but antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs were also frequently prescribed. There was a significant positive correlation between GDP per capita and prescription rate (Spearman ρ = 0.60; P = 0.0011; 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.81), that is, the higher the GDP per capita, the higher the prescription rate.There are marked international differences in prescription rates, and this is partially accounted by economic factors. Future research should combine more data for ASD comorbidity treatment to explore the disparity of psychopharmacological treatment between countries. Autism Res 2014, ●●: ●●–●●. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Autism Research 10/2014; 7(5). DOI:10.1002/aur.1391 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions with restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). RRBs can severely limit daily living and be particularly stressful to family members. To date, there are limited options for treating this feature in ASD. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is approved to treat irritability in ASD, but less is known about whether it is effective in treating “higher order” RRBs, for example cognitive inflexibility. Risperidone also has multiple receptor targets in which only a subset may be procognitive and others induce cognitive impairment. 5HT2A receptor blockade represents one promising and more targeted approach, as various preclinical studies have shown that 5HT2A receptor antagonists improve cognition. The present study investigated whether risperidone and/or M100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, improved probabilistic reversal learning performance in the BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. The effects of these treatments were also investigated in C57BL/6J (B6) mice as a comparison strain. Using a spatial reversal learning test with 80/20 probabilistic feedback, similar to one in which ASD individuals exhibit impairments, both risperidone (0.125 mg) and M100907 (0.01 and 0.1 mg) improved reversal learning in BTBR mice. Risperidone (0.125 mg) impaired reversal learning in B6 mice. Improvement in probabilistic reversal learning performance resulted from treatments enhancing the maintenance of the newly correct choice pattern. Because risperidone can lead to unwanted side effects, treatment with a specific 5HT2A receptor antagonist may improve cognitive flexibility in individuals with ASD while also minimizing unwanted side effects. Autism Res 2014, ●●: ●●–●●. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Autism Research 10/2014; 7(5). DOI:10.1002/aur.1395 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper aims to examine health care utilization and expenditure in the provision of medical care to understand the medical care burden of children with autism spectrum disorders based on recent literature reviews. This article reviews the recent literature in Medline, PubMed, and Google by using key terms that are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and health care (medical care) utilization, medical care costs, and expenditures. I also hand-searched the reference lists of all of the included articles and recent narrative and systematic reviews related to medical care utilization and the costs of ASD to identify potentially relevant articles. The literature on medical care utilization and expenditures related to ASD highlights the fact that the disorder imposes high medical care burdens on families and on society. It is necessary to initiate appropriate, comprehensive, and accessible medical care services for individuals with ASD, particularly for those with comorbid conditions. Future studies should examine the impact of such improvements in the management of children with ASD on medical care utilization and costs.06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40489-014-0023-8