Long-survivors of glioblatoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose between long-survivors and non-long-survivors in patients with glioblatoma (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Among 23 GBM patients treated with BNCT, there were five patients who survived more than three years after diagnosis. The physical and weighted dose of the minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) of long-survivors was much higher than that of non-long survivors with significant statistical differences.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) gains entry into susceptible cells by interacting with cell surface receptor(s). Viral entry is an attractive target for antiviral development because of the highly conserved mechanism. HCV culture systems were used to study the effects of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (PS-ONs), as amphipathic DNA polymers (APs), on HCV infection. The in vivo effects of APs were tested in urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice engrafted with human hepatocytes. We show the sequence-independent inhibitory effects of APs on HCV infection. APs were shown to potently inhibit HCV infection at submicromolar concentrations. APs exhibited a size-dependent antiviral activity and were equally active against HCV pseudoparticles of various genotypes. Control phosphodiester oligonucleotide (PO-ON) polymer without the amphipathic structure was inactive. APs had no effect on viral replication in the HCV replicon system or binding of HCV to cells but inhibited viral internalization, indicating that the target of inhibition is at the postbinding, cell entry step. In uPA/SCID mice engrafted with human hepatocytes, APs efficiently blocked de novo HCV infection. Our results demonstrate that APs are a novel class of antiviral compounds that hold promise as a drug to inhibit HCV entry.Gastroenterology 04/2009; 137(2):673-81. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Promising results have been observed with an investigational drug class for hepatitis C (HCV), the specifically targeted antiviral therapies for hepatitis C (STAT-Cs), when combined with peginterferon plus ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV). This class has the potential to increase sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduce therapy duration in genotype 1 chronic HCV patients compared with Peg-IFN/RBV alone. However, because of the remarkable sequence variation in HCV (resulting from the high viral replication rate and intrinsically error-prone nature of HCV polymerase), variants with reduced susceptibility to STAT-Cs can occur naturally before treatment, usually at low levels, and can be selected in patients not responding to potent STAT-C treatment. This review first describes how resistance to a STAT-C can develop and then provides an overview of mutations that confer varying levels of resistance to STAT-Cs, which have been identified and characterized using both genotypic and phenotypic tools. We will discuss why an understanding of the selection of variants with reduced susceptibility to a treatment regimen may be important in optimizing the use of this new class of HCV therapy. Strategies for optimizing treatment regimens to increase response rates, and thereby minimize resistance, will be discussed. Finally, although resistance can be a consequence of not achieving an SVR on an initial regimen, there may be alternative treatment options for patients to achieve an SVR in the future. Future potential therapeutic strategies to address patients who do develop resistance to STAT-Cs are discussed, including combination therapy with multiple STAT-Cs with non-overlapping resistance profiles.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2009; 65(2):202-12. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide with nearly 3% of the world population infected by this virus. Fortunately, this virus does not establish latency, and hence it may be possible to eradicate it. HCV is strongly associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is currently treated with pegylated interferon-alpha (peg-IFN-alpha) and ribavirin. Unfortunately, these limited treatment options often produce significant side effects, and currently, complete eradication of virus with combined drug modalities has not yet been achieved for the majority of chronically HCV-infected individuals. Restricted treatment options, lack of a universal cure for HCV and the link between chronic infection, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma necessitate design of novel drugs and treatment options. Understanding the relationship between the immune response, viral clearance and inhibition of viral replication with pharmacology-based design can ultimately allow for complete eradication of HCV. This review focuses upon significant novel preclinical and clinical specifically targeted antiviral therapy (STAT-C) drugs under development, highlights their mechanism of action, and discusses their impact on systemic viral loads and permanent clearance of infection.Journal of Viral Hepatitis 02/2010; 17(2):77-90. · 3.08 Impact Factor