Insurance status and racial differences in uterine cancer survival: A study of patients in the National Cancer Database
ABSTRACT To examine the impact of race and insurance on survival among a large cohort of uterine cancer patients from the National Cancer Database (NCDB).
Women diagnosed with stages I-III uterine cancer between 2000 and 2001 were selected from the NCDB. Kaplan-Meier (KM) and multivariate Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate 4 year survival rates and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively.
Among the 39,510 evaluable patients, African Americans had a higher risk of death compared to whites (HR=1.43 95% CI 1.31-1.56) after adjusting for age, clinical and facility factors and zip code level education. After additional adjustment for treatment, the risk death decreased among African Americans (HR=1.33 95%CI 1.21-1.46) and subsequent adjustment for insurance further reduced the hazard of death (HR=1.28 95% CI 1.17-1.40). Patients with insurance other than private had an increased risk of death (uninsured HR=1.44 95% CI 1.20-1.72, Medicaid HR=1.70, 95% CI 1.46-1.99, Medicare among patients aged 18-64 HR=2.49, 95% CI 2.10-2.95, Medicare among patients aged 65-99 HR=1.22, 95% 1.11-1.34).
The largest contributors to African American/white survival disparities in this study were clinical factors, including stage at diagnosis, grade and histopathology. Patients without private health insurance had worse uterine cancer survival that may be improved through future health care reform aimed at improving access to preventive services and adequate treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Screening can increase early detection and reduce rates of advanced-stage cancer. Uninsured patients have been shown to have lower rates of screening. Previous studies have shown that uninsured patients and patients with Medicaid present with more advanced stages of cancer. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of insurance status in the setting of a safety-net hospital. Patients in our tumor registry with a diagnosis of breast or colorectal cancer between 2001 and 2010 were included. On the basis of their insurance status, they were divided into the following groups: Medicaid, Medicare, Medicare age < 65 years, commercial, uninsured, and unknown. Cancer stage was recorded for each patient, with stages III and IV considered advanced disease. The primary end point was the rate of advanced disease in each patient group. A total of 910 patients were included in the study: 836 (91.9%) insured, 54 (5.9%) uninsured, and 20 (2.2%) unknown. Of the insured patients, 301 (36.0%) had Medicaid. Two hundred thirty-seven (30.7%) of 836 insured patients had advanced disease, compared with 27 (50.0%) of 54 uninsured patients (odds ratio, 1.63; P = .003). Of patients with Medicaid, 83 (27.6%) of 301 had advanced disease, which was not statistically different from patients with other insurance. In a safety-net hospital, patients with Medicaid had rates of advanced-stage cancer similar to those in patients with other types of insurance. However, patients with no insurance had significantly higher rates of advanced disease. This has significant ramifications in view of the new health care law, which will convert many patients from being uninsured to having Medicaid.Journal of Oncology Practice 05/2012; 8(3 Suppl):16s-21s. DOI:10.1200/JOP.2012.000542
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ABSTRACT: While oncologists are aware that cancer treatments may impact fertility, referral rates for fertility preservation consultation (FPC) remain poor. The goal of this study was to identify predictors associated with FPC referral. This is a retrospective, cohort study of women aged 18-42 years diagnosed with a new breast, gynecologic, hematologic or gastrointestinal cancer at our institution between January 2008 and May 2010. Exclusion criteria included history of permanent sterilization, documentation of no desire for future children, stage IV disease, short interval (<4 days) between diagnosis and treatment and treatment that posed no threat to fertility. Demographic, socioeconomic and cancer variables were evaluated with respect to FPC. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of referral for FPC based on specified predictors. One hundred and ninety-nine patients were eligible for FPC and of those, 41 received FPC (20.6%). Women with breast cancer were 10 times more likely to receive FPC compared with other cancer diagnoses [odds ratio (OR) 10.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-26.8]. The odds of FPC referral were approximately two times higher for Caucasian women (OR 2.4; 95% CI 0.9-6.2), three times higher for age <35 years (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.4-7.7) and four times higher in nulliparous women (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.9-11.3). There was no association between BMI, income, distance to our institution, being in a relationship and referral for FPC. Overall referral rates for FPC are low, and there appear to be significant discrepancies in referral based on ethnicity, age, parity and cancer type. This highlights a need for further provider education and awareness across all oncologic disciplines.Human Reproduction 05/2012; 27(7):2076-81. DOI:10.1093/humrep/des133 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Access to care is a major concern for impoverished urban communities in the United States, whereas early detection of gynecologic malignancies significantly influences ultimate survival. Our goal was to compare the stage at detection of common gynecologic cancers at an urban county hospital with national estimates, and to describe the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of this population. All new patients presenting to the John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County gynecologic oncology clinic from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009, were reviewed under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Patients receiving primary treatment at the institution during these dates were included for analysis. We used χ tests to compare the institution's stage distributions to national estimates. Two hundred nineteen patients met inclusion criteria over the 2-year study period. Racial and ethnic minorities represented 72.5% of the population. Of the 219 patients, 56.1% (123/219) were uninsured and 37.9% (83/219) were covered by Medicaid or Medicare. We identified 97 (43.9%) cervical, 95 (43%) uterine, and 29 (13.1%) ovarian cancers, including 2 synchronous primaries. Compared to the National Cancer Data Base, women with uterine cancer at our institution were significantly more likely to present with later-stage disease (P < 0.05), whereas cervical cancer and ovarian cancer stage distributions did not differ significantly. Compared to national trends, women with uterine cancer presenting to an urban tertiary care public hospital have significantly more advanced disease, whereas those with cervical cancer do not. Nationally funded cervical cancer screening is successful but does not address all barriers to accessing gynecologic cancer care. Promotion of public education of endometrial cancer symptoms may be a vital need to impoverished communities with limited access to care.International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 07/2012; 22(7):1113-7. DOI:10.1097/IGC.0b013e31825f7fa0 · 1.95 Impact Factor