Measurement of macrophage-mediated killing of intracellular bacteria, including Francisella and mycobacteria.

Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic, and Allergenic Products, CBER/U.S. FDA, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 04/2011; Chapter 14:Unit14.25. DOI: 10.1002/0471142735.im1425s93
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macrophages activated by T cell cytokines are a critical defense mechanism against intracellular bacterial pathogens. This unit presents two general methods for assessing the capacity of mouse macrophages, activated with either soluble cytokines or whole immune T lymphocytes, to control or reduce numbers of intracellular bacteria residing within them. "Measurement of killing" is inferred from a reduction in the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria at the end of a culture period, compared to the input numbers of cfu at initiation of culture, to the peak numbers of cfu measured during culture, or to a control group in which killing is expected to be poor.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our laboratory's investigations into mechanisms of protective immunity against Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) have uncovered mediators important in host defense against primary infection, as well as those correlated with successful vaccination. One such potential correlate was IL-12p40, a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes Th1 T cell function as part of IL-12p70. LVS-infected IL-12p40 deficient knockout (KO) mice maintain a chronic infection, but IL-12p35 KO mice clear LVS infection; thus the role that IL-12p40 plays in immunity to LVS is independent of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. IL-12p40 can also partner with IL-23p19 to create the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. Here, we directly tested the role of IL-23 in LVS resistance, and found IL-23 to be largely dispensable for immunity to LVS following intradermal or intranasal infection. IL-23p19 KO splenocytes were fully competent in controlling intramacrophage LVS replication in an in vitro overlay assay. Further, antibody responses in IL-23p19 KO mice were similar to those of normal wild type mice after LVS infection. IL-23p19 KO mice or normal wild type mice that survived primary LVS infection survived maximal doses of LVS secondary challenge. Thus p40 has a novel role in clearance of LVS infection that is unrelated to either IL-12 or IL-23.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109898. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and no correlates of protection against Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia. We recently demonstrated that measuring in vitro control of intramacrophage bacterial growth by murine F. tularensis-immune splenocytes, as well as transcriptional analyses, discriminated Francisella vaccines of different efficacies. Further, we identified potential correlates of protection against systemic challenge. Here, we extended this approach by studying leukocytes derived from lungs and livers of mice immunized by parenteral and respiratory routes with F. tularensis vaccines. Liver and lung leukocytes derived from intradermally and intranasally vaccinated mice controlled in vitro Francisella Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) intramacrophage replication in patterns similar to those of splenocytes. Gene expression analyses of potential correlates also revealed similar patterns in liver cells and splenocytes. In some cases (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin 22 [IL-22], and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]), liver cells exhibited even higher relative gene expression, whereas fewer genes exhibited differential expression in lung cells. In contrast with their strong ability to control LVS replication, splenocytes from intranasally vaccinated mice expressed few genes with a hierarchy of expression similar to that of splenocytes from intradermally vaccinated mice. Thus, the relative levels of gene expression vary between cell types from different organs and by vaccination route. Most importantly, because studies comparing cell sources and routes of vaccination supported the predictive validity of this coculture and gene quantification approach, we combined in vitro LVS replication with gene expression data to develop analytical models that discriminated between vaccine groups and successfully predicted the degree of vaccine efficacy. Thus, this strategy remains a promising means of identifying and quantifying correlative T cell responses. IMPORTANCE Identifying and quantifying correlates of protection is especially challenging for intracellular bacteria, including Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis is classified as a category A bioterrorism agent, and no vaccines have been licensed in the United States, but tularemia is a rare disease. Therefore, clinical trials to test promising vaccines are impractical. In this report, we further evaluated a novel approach to developing correlates by assessing T cell immune responses in lungs and livers of differentially vaccinated mice; these nonprofessional immune tissues are colonized by Francisella. The relative degree of vaccine efficacy against systemic challenge was reflected by the ability of immune T cells, particularly liver T cells, to control the intramacrophage replication of bacteria in vitro and by relative gene expression of several immunological mediators. We therefore developed analytical models that combined bacterial replication data and gene expression data. Several resulting models provided excellent discrimination between vaccines of different efficacies.
    mBio 02/2014; 5(2). · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using a panel of vaccines that provided different degrees of protection, we previously identified the IL-12 receptor subunit β2 as a mediator, whose relative expression correlated with strength of protection against secondary lethal challenge of vaccinated mice with an intracellular bacterium, the LVS of Francisella tularensis. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that IL-12Rβ2 is an important mediator in resistance to LVS by directly examining its role during infections. IL-12Rβ2 KO mice were highly susceptible to LVS primary infection, administered i.d. or i.n. The LD(50) of LVS infection of KO mice were 2 logs lower than those of WT mice, regardless of route. Five days after infection with LVS, bacterial organ burdens were significantly higher in IL-12Rβ2 KO mice. IL-12Rβ2 KO mice infected with lethal doses of LVS had more severe liver pathology, including significant increases in the liver enzymes ALT and AST. Despite decreased levels of IFN-γ, LVS-vaccinated IL-12Rβ2 KO mice survived large lethal LVS secondary challenge. Consistent with in vivo protection, in vitro intramacrophage LVS growth was well-controlled in cocultures containing WT or IL-12Rβ2 KO LVS-immune splenocytes. Thus, survival of secondary LVS challenge was not strictly dependent on IL-12Rβ2. However, IL-12Rβ2 is important in parenteral and mucosal host resistance to primary LVS infection and in the ability of WT mice to clear LVS infection and serves to restrict liver damage.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 02/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor


Available from
Sep 18, 2014