High reliability of scrotal ultrasonography in the management of childhood primary testicular neoplasms.

Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
Klinische Pädiatrie (Impact Factor: 1.9). 04/2011; 223(3):131-7. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1271813
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The role for testis-sparing surgery in the treatment of primary intratesticular lesions in childhood is growing. The reliability of scrotal ultrasonograpy (US) in the management of these lesions is still controversial.
Between 1991 and 2007, 383 children and adolescents presented with testicular abnormalities. Ultrasound results and records of patients with primary testicular neoplasms were analyzed.
12 of 383 patients (3.1%) had a histologically proven primary intratesticular neoplasm. Scrotal US was highly sensitive for the detection of these lesions. Patients' mean age at initial US was 6 years (9 prepubertal, 3 juvenile patients). The most frequent symptom was a painless unilateral scrotal mass (75%). Tumor markers or testosterone were elevated in 6/12 boys. Histology was intratesticular germ cell in 7, sexcord stromal tumor in 4 and capillary hemangioma in 1 patient. US correctly distinguished between benign and malignant lesions in all cases. When combined with clinical symptoms, US predicted 75% of histologies. After including hormone and tumor marker levels, a correct preoperative diagnosis was made for all boys with germ cell, and for 75% of boys with sexcord stromal tumor.
Scrotal US is highly sensitive for the detection of childhood primary intratesticular tumors and, when combined with clinical data, highly reliable for differential diagnosis. It may help clinicians to decide when to opt for testis-sparing surgery.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Testicular hemangioma is a very rare neoplasm with only 25 cases reported in the English literature. We describe 8 cases of testicular hemangioma encountered at our institution between 1992 and 2012. Of the 7 consult cases, 4 were malignant, 1 a Leydig cell tumor, and 2 were recognized as hemangiomas. The patients' ages ranged from 9 to 54 years (mean 32; median 30). Seven patients presented with self-detected palpable masses, and 2 patients reported pain. Six hemangiomas involved the right testis, and 2 were left sided. Ultrasonography recognized hypervascularity in 3 cases. History of pelvic irradiation, chemotherapy, and remote scrotal trauma was present in 3 patients. Preoperative serum tumor markers were negative (2/2 cases). The average size was 1.7 cm (median 1.8; range, 0.5 to 3.0). Six cases were infiltrative within the testis and entrapped benign seminiferous tubules, and 3 tumors invaded the tunica albuginea. Three hemangiomas were epithelioid, 2 anastomosing, 1 cellular capillary, 1 capillary, and 1 cavernous. Mitoses were sparse in all but 1 case, which reached up to 5 per 10 HPF. In 6 cases, seminiferous tubules adjacent to the hemangioma were atrophic without spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 6 cases, and tumors stained with CD31, CD34, FVIII-related protein, and FLI-1 but not with pancytokeratin AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, keratin 8/18, placental alkaline phosphatase, human herpes virus 8, human chorionic gonadotropin, c-kit, melan-A, or p53. In cases with follow-up, there were no recurrences in 7 patients (mean 21 mo; median 12 mo; range, 1 to 72 mo). In summary, testicular hemangioma is a rare neoplasm with different morphologies having in common an infiltrative growth pattern with entrapment of seminiferous tubules, which should not be considered a feature of malignancy. Clinical and radiologic findings may preoperatively suggest a vascular tumor.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 06/2013; 37(6):860-6. · 4.06 Impact Factor