Do cilia put brakes on the cell cycle?
ABSTRACT Two papers in this issue show that dynein-binding proteins may regulate the G1-S transition through an effect on cilia. Nde1, a known partner of dynein light chain LC8, controls ciliary length in vitro and in zebrafish, and influences the G1-S progression. The phosphorylation of Tctex1, a dynein light chain, modulates cilia length and accelerates G1-S, thereby regulating proliferation-differentiation decisions in the developing mouse neocortex.
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ABSTRACT: Cilia and flagella are dynamic organelles that undergo assembly and disassembly during each cell cycle. They are structurally polarized, and the mechanisms by which these organelles are disassembled are incompletely understood. Here, we show that flagellar resorption occurs in two distinct phases of length-dependent regulation. A CDK-like kinase, encoded by flagellar shortening 1 (FLS1), is required for the normal rate of disassembly of only the distal part of the flagellum. Mechanistically, loss of function of FLS1 prevents the initial phosphorylation of CALK, an aurora-like kinase that regulates flagellar shortening, and induces the earlier onset of the inhibitory phosphorylation of CrKinesin13, a microtubule depolymerase, which is involved in flagellar shortening. In addition, CALK and CrKinesin13 phosphorylation can also be induced by the process of flagellar shortening itself, demonstrating an example of cilia-generated signaling not requiring the binding of a ligand or the stimulation of an ion channel. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Reports 03/2015; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.044 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying many of the human disease phenotypes associated with ciliary dysfunction and abnormal centrosome amplification have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we present for the first time that SIRT2, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, regulates ciliogenesis and centrosome amplification. Overexpression of SIRT2 in renal epithelial cells appeared to disrupt cilia formation, causing decreased numbers of cells with cilia and decreased cilia length, while inhibition of SIRT2 activity by nicotinamide treatment or knockdown of SIRT2 with siRNA was shown to block cilia disassembly during the cell cycle. Overexpression of SIRT2 in zebrafish decreased cilia numbers in Kupffer's vesicle, while morpholino knock down of SIRT2 increased cilia length. Aberrant centrosome amplification and polyploidy were seen with overexpression of SIRT2 in mouse IMCD3 cells, similar to that observed following Pkd1 knockdown. SIRT2 was upregulated in both Pkd1 mutant and knockdown cells. Depletion of SIRT2 prevented the abnormal centrosome amplification and polyploidy associated with loss of polycystin-1 (PC1) alone. Thus, we conclude that the aberrant centrosome amplification and polyploidy in Pkd1 mutant or depleted cells was mediated through overexpression of SIRT2. Our results suggest a novel function of SIRT2 in cilia dynamics and centrosome function, and in ciliopathy-associated disease progression.Human Molecular Genetics 11/2013; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddt556 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary cilium acts as a cellular antenna, transducing diverse signaling pathways, and recent evidence suggests that primary cilia are important in development and cancer. However, a role for cilia in normal muscle development and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has not been explored. Here we implicate primary cilia in proliferation, hedgehog (Hh) signaling, and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Cilia and Hh signaling are highly dynamic during the differentiation of myoblasts. We show that cilia are assembled during the initial stages of myogenic differentiation but disappear as cells progress through myogenesis, concomitant with the destruction of proteins critical for cilia assembly and shortly after the Hh effector, Gli3, leaves the cilium. Importantly, we show that ablation of primary cilia strongly suppresses Hh signaling and myogenic differentiation while enhancing proliferation. Interestingly, our data further indicate that both cilia assembly and Hh signaling are deregulated in RMS, and cilia respond to Hh ligand in certain subsets of RMS cells but not others. Together, these findings provide evidence for an essential role for both primary cilia assembly and disassembly in the control of Hh signaling and early differentiation in muscle cells. We suggest that the temporally orchestrated destruction of centrosomal and ciliary proteins is a necessary antecedent for removal of the primary cilium and cessation of Hh signaling during myogenic differentiation. Additionally, our results further stratify RMS populations and highlight cilia assembly and disassembly as potential RMS drug targets.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; 111(25). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323265111 · 9.81 Impact Factor