Bovine valved venous xenograft in pulmonary position: Medium term evaluation of risk factors for dysfunction and failure after 156 implants

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Federico II, Naples, Italy.
The Journal of cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 1.46). 04/2011; 52(2):285-91.
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated risk factors for dysfunction and failure of the bovine Contegra valved conduit for right ventricle outflow tract reconstruction.
A total of 156 bovine jugular vein conduits were reviewed. Early and late mortality were evaluated. Seriate echocardiography was performed through the follow-up (mean 58±43.2 months, range 12 to 108 months), and risk factors and adverse events evaluation were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.
Hospital mortality was 7% (11/156). The only independent predictor of early mortality were cardiopulmonary bypass time >120 minutes and age <1 year. Postoperative mean RV to PA gradient was 10.4±9.1 mm Hg, increased to 18.7±14.5 mm Hg during the follow-up. A late gradient >30 mm Hg was assessed in 22 patients (15.1%),while 12 patients developed conduit valve regurgitation greater than 2+ without evidence of aneurismal formation. All patients with right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) pressure ratio >0.6 had conduit valve regurgitation. Acquired distal conduit stenosis was observed only in 1 patient. Thirteen patient underwent conduit replacement, diameter ≤14 mm was the only independent risk factor for reoperation. All explanted conduits were free from calcification and valve leaflets were intact and pliable. The Contegra graft itself was never cause of adverse event.
The Contegra conduit provided excellent results and freedom from calcification in a medium-term follow-up. Younger age at operation was associated with higher need of replacements for conduit patient mismatch due to patient growth.

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    ABSTRACT: The focus of this study is to share the experience and outcomes of Contegra graft implantation in the paediatric and adult population in Pakistan. Between May 2007 and July 2011, 16 patients, underwent implantation of a Contegra valved conduit. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. Indications included: Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (n = 11), Tetralogy of Fallot with absent Pulmonary Valve (PV) syndrome (n = 2), double outlet right ventricle, transposition of great arteries and pulmonary stenosis (n = 1), isolated aortic valve disease (n = 1) and a pseudo-aneurysm with infective endocarditis (n = 1).Conduit sizes varied between 16-22 mm. The three in hospital deaths were unrelated to the Contegra valved conduit. One patient was lost to follow up. Of the 12 survivors, 10 are currently free from re-operation or complications related to the conduit while one needed distal pulmonary artery dilatation owing to critical stenosis and another had severe Valvular regurgitation. Echocardiographic evaluation of the Contegra valved conduit demonstrated no haemodynamically significant valve regurgitation in 10 patients. In this small review of 16 operations using the Contegra valved conduit for Right Venticular Outflow Tract (RVOT) reconstruction in the paediatric population, we observed good post operative results concerning conduit function. The Contegra conduit provides an excellent substitute to the homograft with satisfactory early and mid-term results though long-term results are awaited in Pakistan.
    Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 10/2012; 62(10):1113-7. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2012; 20(4):710-715. DOI:10.5606/tgkdc.dergisi.2012.143 · 0.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contegra, a bovine jugular vein graft, has been widely used as a preferable biomaterial in the surgical treatment of congenital heart defects, especially as a conduit for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. This article aims to make a comprehensive review on the clinical outcomes of Contegra. Reports of Contegra published since 2002 were comprehensively retrieved, collected and analyzed. There were 1718 Contegra, applied in 1705 patients. The sizes of the conduits were 8-22 mm. The patients aged from newborn to 74.5 years, prevailed by pediatrics. The primary diagnosis was congenital heart defects in all cases, with Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia being the first three diagnoses, representing 25.6%, 16.7%, and 13.1%, respectively. Contegra was used as a tube graft in the pulmonary position in 1635 (95.9%) patients, as a monocuspid patch in 12 (0.7%), as a graft in the position of the pulmonary valve or a monocusps in 40 (2.3%), and as an inferior vena cava-pulmonary artery conduit in the Fontan procedure in 18 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Conduit reimplantation was performed in 141 (8.3%) patients 33.8 ± 37 (8.6-106.8) months after the initial conduit insertion. Conduit plasty was necessary in 6 (0.4%), and reintervention in 83 (4.9%) patients. Indications for conduit reimplantation included severe stenosis of the distal anastomosis, pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis and severe conduit regurgitation. As for the good performance, availability and longevity, Contegra is a biomaterial suitable for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and for patch repair for ventricular septal defect, but not apt for Fontan procedure.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 11/2012; 99(6). DOI:10.1590/S0066-782X2012005000105 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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