Elimination of hospital-acquired infections is an important patient safety goal.
All 174 medical, cardiac, surgical and mixed Veterans Administration (VA) intensive care units (ICUs).
A centralised infrastructure (Inpatient Evaluation Center (IPEC)) supported the practice bundle implementation (handwashing, maximal barriers, chlorhexidinegluconate site disinfection, avoidance of femoral catheterisation and timely removal) to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Support included recruiting leadership, benchmarked feedback, learning tools and selective mentoring.
Sites recorded the number of CLABSI, line days and audit results of bundle compliance on a secure website.
CLABSI rates between years were compared with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from a Poisson regression and with National Healthcare Safety Network referent rates (standardised infection ratio (SIR)). Pearson's correlation coefficient compared bundle adherence with CLABSI rates. Semi-structured interviews with teams struggling to reduce CLABSI identified common themes.
From 2006 to 2009, CLABSI rates fell (3.8-1.8/1000 line days; p<0.01); as did IRR (2007; 0.83 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.94), 2008; 0.65 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), 2009; 0.47 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.55)). Bundle adherence and CLABSI rates showed strong correlation (r = 0.81). VA CLABSI SIR, January to June 2009, was 0.76 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.90), and for all FY2009 0.88 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.97). Struggling sites lacked a functional team, forcing functions and feedback systems.
Capitalising on a large healthcare system, VA IPEC used strategies applicable to non-federal healthcare systems and communities. Such tactics included measurement through information technology, leadership, learning tools and mentoring.
"For example, substantial progress has been made in the prevention of CLABSIs, a frequently lethal HAI with an associated mortality of 12–25%. Statewide and local hospital initiatives have demonstrated approximately 70% reductions in CLABSI rates in ICUs by increasing adherence to recommended best practices for central-line insertions (Pronovost et al., 2006; Render et al., 2011; Weber, Brown, Sickbert- Bennett, & Rutala, 2010). As an integral component of its goal to maximize patient safety, the University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC) has focused on infection prevention initiatives for many years. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve sustainable reductions in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), the University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC) deployed a collaborative, systems-level initiative. With the sponsorship of senior leadership, multidisciplinary teams were established to address healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and respiratory virus infections. The goal of the initiative was to eliminate these four HAIs among medical center inpatients by 2012. In the first 24 months of the project, the number of healthcare-associated MRSA cases decreased 58%; CLABSI cases decreased 54%. Staff and provider compliance with infection prevention measures improved and remained strong, for example, 96% compliance with hand hygiene, 98% compliance with the recommended influenza vaccination program, and 100% compliance with the VAP bundle. Achieving these results required an array of coordinated, systems-level interventions. Critical project success factors were believed to include creating organizational alignment by declaring eliminating HAIs as an organizational breakthrough goal, having the organization's executive leadership highly engaged in the project, coordination by an experienced and effective project leader and manager, collaboration by multidisciplinary project teams, and promoting transparency of results across the organization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-drug-resistant organisms are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Healthcare-associated infection and antimicrobial resistance are also current challenges to the treatment of infectious diseases in Taiwan. Government health policies and the health care systems play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of interventions to contain antimicrobial resistance. National commitment to understand and address the problem is prerequisite. We analyzed and reviewed the antibiotic resistance related policies in Taiwan, USA, WHO and draft antimicrobial stewardship program to control effectively antibiotic resistance and spreading in Taiwan. Antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan includes establishment of national inter-sectoral antimicrobial stewardship task force, implementing antimicrobial-resistance management strategies, surveillance of HAI and antimicrobial resistance, conducting hospital infection control, enforcement of appropriate regulations and audit of antimicrobial use through hospital accreditation, inspection and national health insurance payment system. No action today, no cure tomorrow. Taiwan CDC would take a multifaceted, evidence-based approach and make every effort to combat antimicrobial resistance with stakeholders to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reduce the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 04/2012; 45(2):79-89. DOI:10.1016/j.jmii.2012.03.007 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite considerable efforts to improve healthcare quality and patient safety, broad measures of patient outcomes show little improvement. Many factors, including limited programme evaluations and understanding of whether quality improvement (QI) efforts are sustained, potentially contribute to the lack of widespread improvements in quality. This study examines whether hospitals participating in a Veterans Health Affairs QI collaborative have made and then sustained improvements.
Separate patient-level risk-adjusted time-series models for two primary outcomes (hospital length of stay (LOS) and rate of discharges before noon) as well as three secondary outcomes (30-day all-cause hospital readmission, in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality). The models considered 2 years of pre-intervention data, 1 year of data to measure improvements and then 2 years of post-intervention data to see whether improvements were sustained.
Among 130 Veterans Affairs hospitals, 35% and 46% exhibited improvements beyond baseline trends on LOS and discharges before noon, respectively. 60% of improving LOS hospitals exhibited sustained improvements, but only 32% for discharges by noon. Additional subgroup analyses by hospital size and region found a similar performance across most groups.
This quasi-experimental evaluation found lower rates of improvements than normally reported in studies of QI collaboratives. The most striking observation was that a majority of hospitals increased their rates of discharges before noon, but after completing the collaborative their performance declined. Future work needs to qualitatively and quantitatively assess what organisational features distinguish those hospitals that can improve and sustain quality.
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