Article

Thrombocytopenia in infants and children.

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Pediatrics in Review (Impact Factor: 0.82). 04/2011; 32(4):135-49; quiz 150-1. DOI: 10.1542/pir.32-4-135
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia is the result of falling the number of platelet from 150,000/microL. There are three main reasons of thrombocy-topenia, a-Decreasing of making platelet b-Increasing of destruc-tion platelet c-Changing of distribution platelet. Pseudothrombo-cytopenia must be kept in mind too. Both hereditary and acquired reasons help thrombocytopenia have wide spreaded, but acquired causes are more common with increasing age. Thrombocytopenia separates three stages as numerical. Mild: 100,000 -150,000/mi-croL, Moderate: 50,000 -100,000/microL. Severe: < 50,000/mi-croL. However, thrombocytopenia is not usually detected clinically until the platelet count has fallen to levels below 100,000/microL. Severe thrombocytopenia, such as intracerebral and intra-abdomi-nal bleeding may be life threatening. So diagnosing the treatment immediately can save the life. Transfusion of platelet may not need in all thrombocytopenias. Treatment of the underlying disease may be sufficient. The reason of thrombocytopenia can be temporary but also can be caused severe diseases. Causes of thrombocytopenia change development levels of countries, according to geographical distribution and application centers. In this review we emphasize common etiologies seen in adult patients with thrombocytopenia.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cytopenia is a common hematologic complication of viral infections. However, information regarding hematologic effects of common respiratory virus infections is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate hematologic complications and the clinical course of patients infected with common respiratory viruses. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 496 patients with respiratory tract infections admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Wonkwang University Hospital from November 2011 to March 2012 using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of respiratory viruses and hematologic abnormalities. Results: Respiratory viruses were identified in 379 patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was most frequently detected (55.7%), followed by influenza A (Flu-A, 23.0%). Further, cytopenia was observed in 35.5% of RSV-infected patients, 25.0% of Flu-A-infected patients, and 34% of patients infected by other viruses. Each virus caused a decrease in 3 blood cell component values, which corresponded with cytopenia frequency. Of the 379 infected patients, 83 had anemia (); 46 had neutropenia (); and 23 had transient thrombocytopenia (). However, no patient required treatment. A comparison of clinical characteristics between RSV- and Flu-A-positive patients with anemia revealed that RSV-infected patients had significantly longer duration of hospitalization. RSV was detected more commonly in young neutropenic patients, who had a shorter duration of fever. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that infections, particularly RSV and Flu-A, result in varying degrees of cytopenia, which usually improves without treatment and does not affect the clinical course of the infection.
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