Plant NB-LRR signaling: upstreams and downstreams.
ABSTRACT Plant disease resistance proteins commonly belong to the nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein family. These specialized immune proteins mediate recognition of diverse pathogen-derived effector proteins and initiate potent defense responses. NB-LRRs exhibit a multidomain architecture and each domain appears to have discrete functions depending on the stage of NB-LRR signaling. Novel proteins that were found to interact with the core HSP90 chaperone complex regulate accumulation and activation of NB-LRR immune receptors. Recent studies have also advanced our understanding of how accessory proteins contribute to NB-LRR activation. The dynamic nature of NB-LRR localization to different subcellular compartments before and after activation suggests that NB-LRRs may activate immune responses in multiple parts of the cell. In this review we highlight recent advances in understanding NB-LRR function.
Article: Nuclear accumulation of the Arabidopsis immune receptor RPS4 is necessary for triggering EDS1-dependent defense.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recognition of specific pathogen molecules inside the cell by nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors constitutes an important layer of innate immunity in plants. Receptor activation triggers host cellular reprogramming involving transcriptional potentiation of basal defenses and localized programmed cell death. The sites and modes of action of NB-LRR receptors are, however, poorly understood. Arabidopsis Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR) type NB-LRR receptor RPS4 recognizes the bacterial type III effector AvrRps4. We show that epitope-tagged RPS4 expressed under its native regulatory sequences distributes between endomembranes and nuclei in healthy and AvrRps4-triggered tissues. RPS4 accumulation in the nucleus, mediated by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) at its C terminus, is necessary for triggering immunity through authentic activation by AvrRps4 in Arabidopsis or as an effector-independent "deregulated" receptor in tobacco. A strikingly conserved feature of TIR-NB-LRR receptors is their recruitment of the nucleocytoplasmic basal-defense regulator EDS1 in resistance to diverse pathogens. We find that EDS1 is an indispensable component of RPS4 signaling and that it functions downstream of RPS4 activation but upstream of RPS4-mediated transcriptional reprogramming in the nucleus.Current Biology 01/2008; 17(23):2023-9. · 9.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant genomes encode large numbers of highly variable nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) disease resistance proteins. These proteins have been studied extensively to understand their evolution and the molecular basis of their function. Multiple studies indicate that the C-terminal LRR domain plays a pivotal role in defining pathogen recognition specificity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the N-termini of NB-LRR proteins also function in pathogen recognition. To formulate a framework that can explain the underlying principles governing NB-LRR function while accommodating findings from different experimental systems, we present a "bait and switch" model. This model proposes a two-step recognition process involving interactions with both cellular cofactors (bait) and the LRR domain, which in turn activates the molecular switch leading to disease resistance.Trends in Plant Science 09/2009; 14(10):521-9. · 11.05 Impact Factor