Article

Pathogenesis and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis.

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Hull York Medical School, University of York, Heslington, York, UK.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.03). 03/2011; 24(3):183-9. DOI: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328345d5b5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most common serious acquired gastrointestinal disorder affecting preterm infants. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this multifactorial condition and consider the implications for practice and research.
NEC is an important cause of mortality and serious morbidity in preterm infants. The risk is inversely proportional to gestational age and weight at birth. Fetal growth restriction and compromise may be additional specific risk factors. NEC, particularly severe NEC requiring surgical intervention and NEC with invasive infection, is associated with acute morbidity and mortality and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The principal modifiable postnatal risk factors for NEC in preterm infants relate to enteral feeding practices including formula milk feeding, early and rapid advancement of enteral feed volumes, and exposure to H2-receptor antagonists.
Our understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition remains incomplete. With the exception of feeding with human milk, only limited evidence is currently available to support interventions to prevent NEC. Promising strategies that merit further evaluation in randomized controlled trials include the use of prebiotics and probiotics and the avoidance of exposure to H2-receptor antagonists.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
77 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This report describes the spontaneous intracardiac air contrast found on the echocardiogram of a 5 day-old term neonate with Down syndrome and a complete atrioventricular septal defect who had experienced sudden-onset tachypnea and systemic desaturation. The stream of air contrast was tracked coming from the hepatic veins, and a diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis was suspected. An abdominal radiograph and ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis.
    Pediatric Cardiology 03/2012; · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe disease that affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of premature infants. Different areas of NEC research have often been isolated from one another and progress on the role of the inflammatory response in NEC, on the dynamics of epithelial layer healing, and on the positive effects of breast feeding have not been synthesized to produce a more integrated understanding of the pathogenesis of NEC. We seek to synthesize these areas of research by creating a mathematical model that incorporates the current knowledge on these aspects. Unlike previous models that are based on ordinary differential equations, our mathematical model takes into account not only transient effects but also spatial effects. A system of nonlinear transient partial differential equations is solved numerically using cell-centered finite differences and an explicit Euler method. The model is used to track the evolution of a prescribed initial injured area in the intestinal wall. It is able to produce pathophysiologically realistic results; decreasing the initial severity of the injury in the system and introducing breast feeding to the system both lead to healthier overall simulations, and only a small fraction of epithelial injuries lead to full-blown NEC. In addition, in the model, changing the initial shape of the injured area can significantly alter the overall outcome of a simulation. This finding suggests that taking into account spatial effects may be important in assessing the outcome for a given NEC patient. This model can provide a platform with which to test competing hypotheses regarding pathological mechanisms of inflammation in NEC, suggest experimental approaches by which to clarify pathogenic drivers of NEC, and may be used to derive potential intervention strategies.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 12/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) has been linked to vasoconstriction, altered membrane transport, and apoptosis. Our objective was to determine whether increased EDLF in the cord sera of preterm infants was associated with an increased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Study Design Cord sera from pregnant women enrolled in a randomized trial of MgSO4 for fetal neuroprotection were analyzed for EDLF using a red cell Rb+ uptake assay in which the inhibition of sodium pump-mediated Rb+ transport was used as a functional assay of EDLF. Specimens were assayed blinded to neonatal outcome. Cases (NEC, n = 25) and controls (neonates not developing stage 2 or 3 NEC, n = 24) were matched by study center and gestational age. None of the women had preeclampsia. Cases and controls were compared using the Wilcoxon test for continuous and the Fisher exact test for categorical variables. A conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the odds of case vs control by EDLF level. Results Cases and controls were not significantly different for gestational age, race, maternal steroid use, premature rupture of membranes, or MgSO4 treatment. In logistic models adjusted for treatment group, race, premature rupture of membranes, and gestational age, cord sera EDLF was significantly associated with development of NEC (P = .023). Conclusion These data demonstrated an association between cord sera EDLF and NEC.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 01/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
8 Downloads
Available from
May 24, 2014

Similar Publications